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41 COMMENTS

  1. David is going out of his way to explain away things that have been well documented that make a lot more sense than his version. Just because we do not see it with our naked eye does not mean it does not exist. The fact is that there is a great deal that exists just outside of our 3D perception. He is trying to rationalize the asteroid belt with what we can see rather than what we can't also.

  2. Ẃ͔͙̯̟͐̄e̙̦̖̺͑͛̈͋͌ ̹A̲͇͙r̟͍̩̻͍̄̋̉͛ͪe̗͉̬ͩ̅ͅ ̪̤̒́̓̔B͓̜ͬͬeͧ̿̉̑̄͊ͤi̜͇͓̳̯̠̼n̔́͒̀̚ğ̩̱͙̗͍͙̃ͪ͆̑̽̓ͅ ̝̰̗̜̤͔͖̔M̥̠͒ͭ̈͒̏̅ͅa̟̱̭̞̹͎n͔̟̒̈́̈́͐ͅi͙̳͕̲͍̙̔ͦ̋̃ͨp̲̲͚̗͉̜͒ͯͤ͂̍ͤͅuͭ͗͗̆l͋̃a̎̏̔͌͐t̜̟̖̱̼͈̲ͯ̀e̳͈̩̩̬͖̐d̥̲͛̾ ̞̄̆B͚̪̱̺̃̂̓̈y̘͛̑ͨ͂̀ ̗͖̭̹̅̋ͨ̓͑ͅt͔̺̪ͮ̀̈̌h̭̭̱̔͊͑e̼̭̤͚ͣͦͦ̽ͅ ͙̥̥̰̫̓̄Iṇ̻̯ͮ̌ͧ̅o͈͖͎̭̮̗̫͌̈̒ͤr͎̺͕̞͕͍d̹͖̙̬͔̭̬́̊̔̅̆i̜̱̤̘̥̠̼ͦ͗͌ͯ̍ͫn̪͚̘̲̘͓ͥ̑͊̚ͅȧ̘ͮ̅́ͣͬ̏t͓͚͓͎͓̂͛eͭͤ̔ͨ ̬̟̬͎ͤͭ͐̀̈̚We͔͔̙̣͙̤̹ͮ̃ͤḁ͎̟͓̩͙̅ͨ́ͅl̖̪̬̺̙̭̙̔̄͒ͫ̆ṱ̂̏ͨ͐h̄̅ͬͭ̔ ͉͔̹̝ͩo̩ͫͧͪ̓ͧ̃f͇͕̘̩̑̍̆ ̰̪̖t̻ͩ̏̄̿̑h̜̙͕̟͕́̍͐e̹̭̮͖̟̬̊̓̋̓ͩͩ ͇̯͉͓͖̯̭̓ͪ̐ͩͪ̾.̘͉̺̰͉͐̓ͤͥ0̮͉͔̙ͨ́ͧͤ́̔̔0̟1̲̗̥̬̂%̣̤͓̂

    join the Resistance:
    anotherHero.stream

  3. Scientists don't have the proper mind set to figure these things out… it takes a sleuth. The reptilians arrived 12,000+ years ago, bombarded the planet with asteroids, hoisted Lemuria into space and filled up the resultant cavity with water from Mars. This was the great flood. There's no water on Mars. This is the reason that N. America and S. America are thousands of miles away from Europe and Africa; they moved to re balance the planet. There's not enough material in the asteroid belt to make a planet, much less a small moon, but there's enough to make a continent. Lemuria is the asteroid belt. THEY moved the earth from the 5th orbit down to the 3rd orbit to get it away from all the asteroids. THEY have a technology that is 600,000 years old. Size and weight mean nothing to them. When THEY moved the earth, the entire solar system reshuffled itself. it looks like a runaway freight train cam through. THEY were excavating for a new pool. THEY live in water half or more of the time. Now THEY live 7 miles down under the waves and snack on children. Icke didn't show the Cylinder Seal wherein the god was half man and half snake. Ooops!

  4. it wasn't a collision that destroyed tiamat (the planet that once was and now makes up the asteroid belt). the anunnaki developed a kind of "death star" which they were intending to use to protect themselves from the chimera. the chimera hijacked the weapon and destroyed the planet the anunnaki were taking refuge on which was tiamat. the anunnaki then fled to earth which is where the sumerian history comes in and the chimera soon followed and again attempted to obliterate the anunnaki which is how the saharan desert came to be. we can all be glad it was a glancing blow or the earth likely would not have survived.

  5. anunaki are the fallen angels of the bible, aliens yes, but not from another planet but from another dimention or plane or realm (spiritual realm) thr bible is very clear on all od this.
    I have personal experience with all of this and my experiences align with what the bible sais

  6. David Icke is a fantastic advocate for these ideas. We are so lucky to have him. Day by day, it's getting harder to deny that Intervention Theory makes more sense than other explanation of our emergence as a species and the emergence of our civilization.

    God big G and gods little g are not one and the same. When you consider that all three modern monotheistic faiths flow from the moment a god called Abrahm out of the Sumerian city of Ur, you realize how this ancient information flows right into our modern conflicts and headlines. It's all about this cosmic bait and switch between the selfish advanced beings we mistake for god and the true intelligence underlying the universe.

  7. Morons who badmouth Sitchin's work have no idea that ancient languages were even more advanced and more powerful than today's 10000 different ways of speaking same shit. They think oh well ancient that must be ancient and primitive….
    Ancient languages back then were only a few and they highly conceptualized actions ,they didn't have a word and interjection for whatnot like we today use. They often used a single symbol/word whatever to describe a whole series of actions  One does not translate ancient languages letter by letter to make words in modern english. Sitchin did a great job trying to transmute that language into this day and age way of speaking. Else he would have to use all the ancient pronunciations and terms and further translate each one into it's modern counterpart and it would be the same thing but would maybe please morons.

  8. Those morons who have issues with Sitchin's adaptations… Hey, if I translate some ancient text and I replace "water" with "H2O" would you moron be like omgwhat they didn't knew /have H2O back then so you translation is wroooooooong !!!!!! 

    Sitchin basically made use of the words we use now to describe things they built back then when they had different words for them in order to help you morons understand.  If you morons read that indians had vimanas which meant flying ships you might be okay with it but if you morons hear ancient indians had rocketships  or planes…OH NOOOOOO THAT CANNOT BE!!  how  moronic is that ???

  9. LA CASTIDAD CIENTIFICA SOLO LA ACEPTAN LAS PERSONAS QUE ESTAN APRENDIENDO O YA HAN APRENDIDO A VALORAR Y AMAR SU ENERGIA SEXUAL CREADORA YA NO LA PIERDEN SI NO QUE LA TRANSMUTAN, LA APROVECHAN, EXPERIMENTAN SUS BENEFICIOS EXTRORDINARIOS PORTENTOSOS, MARAVILLOSOS, ALQUIMICOS, FISICOS, PSICOLOGICOS Y ESPIRITUALES.

  10. THE ORIGIN & TRUE DEFINITION OF MYTHOLOGY
    The words myth, mythos, and mythology are derived from the Greek μύθος, muthos, which is usually taken to mean a saying, a word, and is sometimes equivalent to logos. In consequence, mythology has been declared to have originated in mere sayings, the clue to which was lost before mythology proper could have existed. For it has been affirmed by Max Muller and maintained by his followers that the radical meaning and primitive power of certain words (and sayings) must be obscured or lost for them to become mythological and that the essential character of a true myth consists in its being no longer intelligible by a reference to the spoken language[1].

    Such teaching of 'comparative mythology' is the result of its being limited to the Aryan area; and if the myth be no longer intelligible in the later languages we must look for it in the earlier.

    The Greek muthoi, for sayings, represents the Egyptian mutu, for ejaculations or brief utterances. Mutuni (Eg.) means 'Lo it is,' or 'It is verily so.' In a similar sense, 'So mote it be' is used by our Freemasons, which brings on a saying and an ancient mode of saying under one word. Mat (Eg.) signifies the pronouncing of conservative formulas. And these formulas and wise sayings were part of the muthoi in Egypt. The muthoi or myths did not begin in Greece or originate in any other Aryan language; nor with the sayings which are the fading metaphors of mythology, and the utterances of its second childhood. Nor is the myth a mere word in Greek. Mutheo­mai is not simply to say, but to feign and fable, represent and invent.

    Μυθικός signifies that which pertains to fable and myth in an early sense; mυθολογεω, is to recite fables. In Attic prose the myth was commonly a legend of early Greek times, before the dawn of history. The mythoi were no mere sayings in a modern sense; [p.136] they were mystical. In them the mysteries were uttered by word of mouth to the ear alone; like the smriti of India. The myths are sayings because they were only to be said, not written; hence muthos denotes anything delivered by word of mouth. They are myths because uttered by word of mouth alone, but they were so uttered because they contained the hidden oral wisdom and dark sayings of old. The mythoi are the logia, and the logia, or sayings, are assignable to a sayer or logos, who was personified as the utterer in the mythology which preceded theology. The sayings, or logia, in Egypt, were assigned to Taht, the moon-god, who was the measurer of time; the reckoner and registrar of truth in the hall of the twofold truth, or double justice. In consequence of his being primarily a representative of the dual lunation, Taht was the sayer, utterer of the divine words, and a logos, tongue, or word in person.

    The sayings or logia were likewise attributed to the youthful solar god Iu-em-Hept (the Egyptian Jesus of the Book of Ecclesiasticus)[2], and the 'second Atum,' who was another of the sayers of whom we read, 'I have heard the words of Iu-em-Hept and Hartataf. It is said in their sayings,' etc.

    The ass (aai) and the cat (peht) are the sayers of great words in the house of Pet, or Heaven[3].

    The Christian gospels were founded on and originated in the logia or sayings as Papias emphatically declares[4]. The Christ of John is the Word, Logos or Sayer in person. His teaching, according to John and Matthew, was conveyed by the sayings, logia or mythoi[5].

    Now, it is immaterial whether the Greek muthoi or mythoi be connected at root, not merely etymologically, with the Egyptian Mâti who represents the 'Two Truths,' but mu and ma are interchangeable, and these sayings were held to be the words of truth and wisdom personified. When Paul speaks of a true saying he means one of the sayings of Truth, of Aletheia.

    So far from Egyptian mythology being founded on words that have lost their senses, it is the science of Truth in a twofold phase or character, called Mâti. Mâti, as divinity, is the goddess who presides in the hall of the twin Truth. Mâti is also a title of Taht in relation to the two truths. The two truths (or twinship of Mâti) appear in the Sanskrit mithuna, a twin couple, the zodiacal Gemini, the state of being dual, Greek meta; and one form of the mâti as Ma and Shu was that of the zodiacal Gemini in Egypt. Mati in Sanskrit signifies measure and exact knowledge. In Egyptian maat as a noun means an inflexible rule of right; that which is strictly accurate in measure, and perfect as the poise of scales, the straightness of the plumb line, or the stretch-out, finger.

    Mythology proper—by which is meant its relation to time as [p.137] distinguished from space, which will be hereafter described—began with the measuring and establishing of periods. Mâ earlier mak, in Egyptian denotes measure, to measure, the measurer who in the dual character is Mâti. Mata in Sanskrit is the mother also the moon as the measurer of time; time being measured and reckoned both by the mother and the moon. The mother measured time in the two phases of feminine pubescence and gestation. These are signified by the double serpent. Matoti in Lithuanian, is to measure. Muthi, in Toda, is the new moon. Mata signifies ten fishes in Fiji, that is a total equal to two hands or the two feet, which are also mâta in Egyptian; and mêt is no. 10 in Coptic.

    Taht and Maat then are two personified forms of the measurer and the utterer of truth. This has two aspects like the mother, or the moon, in her dual lunation; and these sayers in Egypt, preceded the sayings in Greece. Moreover, myth and logos are interchangeable in Greek; and one sense of the word logos is a true narration; as it is said, in the Georgics[6], the fable differs from λόγος, because the latter is true. Thus the logos or myth is identical with the ma-kheru or 'True Word' of the Egyptian theosophy, the word that was made truth when impersonated in the god Har-Ma-Kheru.

    It is now intended to show that mythology is at root the science of the Two Truths or Mâti, which are at the foundations of Egyptian thought and expression. For instance, the moth is a perfect type of Mâti, on account of its transformation from the grub. Mato in Finn is the grub or worm; mato, Lap, the caterpillar or grub; mathu, Gothic, a worm. In English the moth is the winged worm, sometimes called a soul, in the second of two phases.

    Mâti may denote water and breath, decay and renewal, a pair of feet, the two waters, the two solstices, the double lunation, the twin lion-gods, light and shade, menstruation and gestation, wet and heat, the circle and cross (in the knot or ankh), the collar and counterpoise, the house of the Two Truths, or any other type of twinship in which the beginning at first bifurcated.

    For, it may be affirmed, generally, that all veritable beginning in typology, mythology, numbers and language, can be traced to the opening of a oneness which divides and becomes dual in its manifestation.

    So far as the evidence reaches back, all beginning is synonymous with opening. In Egyptian, to found is to open. In Maori and Mangaian, to begin, or tupu, is to open as the bud and flower. So the place of opening is the teph (Eg.), the tuba in Kaffir; and the earliest ascertainable human thought was related to opening. Night opened the starry heaven. The black cloud opened with its quivering Assegai of the lightning. Darkness opened into day. The mother opened to give birth. The child opened into the woman or man at puberty. The male opened the female. The eye opened for seeing; [p.138] the ear for hearing. The nostrils opened with the breath of life. The mouth opened to utter forth; hence the mouth and mother are one by name. In the act of opening things became dual, and this was the bifurcation signified by the Kamite 'Two Truths' of all beginning.

    Max Muller asserts that 'as soon as sûryas, or ήλιος, appears as a masculine form, we are in the very thick of mythology';[7] that is, as soon as sex is distinguishable in words. Nay; but we are caught in the thicket before language was sex-denoting at all, and it is at that stage we have to read some of the hardest riddles of the sphinx of mythology.

    The Hottentot, amongst other languages, reaches back to that stage. 'Thou son of a red "she-bull"' (i.e., of a heroine), is a Hottentot address to a hero[8]. This agrees with 'The Bull called Sothis at her time.'[9] Language had but one name then for the beast of both sexes. So nin in the Assyrian, denotes both the lord and the lady, because nin, or ninu, was the name of the child, the English ninny, and the child was named before the two sexes were discriminated by different terminals. Nin, for the child, was not a sex-denoting word, and the child so named might be of either; and, so far as the type goes, of both.

    The Egyptian type of divinity is the nunter, or nuter, our neuter. The nun is the ninny, the impubescent boy, or young one, the khart of either sex, as is the child or the colt. This type-name is found in English, Greek, Italian, Javanese, Fijian, North American Indian, and other languages, and it is inner African for the young one, as:—

    nina in Mende. nina in Gbandi. a nene in Soso.
    nenj in Kiriman. nunina in Toma. a nene in Kisekise.
      Also for the younger brother, as:—

    nan in Koama. nyan in Vula. ninda in Biafada.
    nana in Bagbalan. nmta in Dselana. ninda in Landoma.
    neneye in Pangela. nyene in Kiamba. nande in Nyanban.
    nuane in Isiele.  
    It is likewise applied to the younger sister.

    As the child, homo was born twin (within the limits of language), and was separated and distinguished at puberty. We shall find the two sexes are said to have been divided by the lizard or serpent, or severed by the stone of the opener; and it will be shown how the one statement is related to the female, the other to the male.

    The totemic mysteries reveal the fact that individual personality was constituted at the period of puberty, and determined as twain by the manifestations of sex, the 'Two Truths' of reproduction. Until that time the child-name was not distinguished by gender. In Egyptian it was also the nakhen, or young one, as the impubescent. [p.139] Nakh denotes pubescent or virile power; which the terminal en negatives. Nicholas, the good genius of children, who was always a child himself, is the nakhen, or nakh-las[10]. The a-nak, in Malay, Salayer, and Javanese, is the child in the same sense.

    Nakhen (Eg.) reappears in the Sanskrit nagna, and nagnaka for the girl who is yet impubescent, and on that account allowed to go naked. In Zulu, nguna means to be quite naked, or to expose the person, and in English nakne is to make naked. The naked were the impubescent, those who did not need to be clothed. Hence the two classes in the Hall of 'Two Truths,' the Good and the Evil, are called the 'Clothed and the Unclothed,' in accordance with this simple origin of the typology.

  11. MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE FALLEN ANGELS PT.4
    Hence the mythos of the fall in heaven. The fallen ogdoad survived in the Moslem traditions as the 'seven sleepers and their dog Al-Rakim.' In the Koran[45] it is asked, 'Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave, and Al-Rakim, were one of our signs and a great miracle?' In this version Al-Rakim takes the place of the dog, the companion of the seven sleepers of Ephesus. The companions of the cave are here said to have been struck deaf, and to have slept undisturbed for a long time, and then the Lord awoke them that we might know 'which of the two parties was more exact in computing the space that the sleepers had remained there,' according to which statement they were of the nature of timekeepers, and therefore belong to the astronomical allegory. 'Some say the sleepers were three, and their dog was the fourth,' as was the opinion of Al-Seyid, a Jacobite Christian of Najrân[46]. 'Others say they were seven, and their dog was the eighth.' 'And this was the true opinion.'[47] The four can be identified with the genii of the four corners, who are four of the seven spirits of the bear and the dog.

    The time of their waking is that of the final resurrection of souls and the renovation of all things. There was a tradition at Ephesus that St. John was not dead, but sleeping there until the consummation or end of the world should come; and this points to the seven churches of Asia as having been founded on the seven constellations in the celestial heptanomis, the seven spirits of which appear 'before the throne' in the Book of Revelation[48] just as they do in the Egyptian Ritual[49].

    It was in the time of the Nephilim (םיליפנ), as described in the Book of Genesis[50], that certain transactions occurred which led to a deluge. The Nephilim, called the giants, are the fallen ones. לפנ means to fall down, to fall down from heaven, to be overthrown, to be abortive, or an untimely birth. These fallen ones correspond to the celestial giants of the primary world or cycle of time who failed and [p.106] fell. In their time it is said the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they cohabited with them[51]. The legend is developed at length in the Book of Enoch where they appear as the 'Watchers' of heaven. In this version of the mythos they are the celestial watchers in the astronomical sense, the disposers and timekeepers, recognized as seven in number. The language is not to be understood apart from the total typology of the subject. The crime charged against Samyaza, Azazel, and their fallen fellows is that they have known and taught a reprobated or unworthy mystery[52]; this they have 'related to women in the hardness of their hearts;' and by that mystery, they have 'multiplied evils upon the earth.' They 'have associated with women, that they might be polluted with all their impurity.' They have discovered crimes to them. It is said to them, 'You being spiritual, and possessing a life which is eternal, have polluted yourselves with women, have coupled in carnal blood, have lusted in the blood of men.' 'They have disclosed to the world all the secret things which are done in the heavens.' 'Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky and their holy, everlasting station, who have been polluted with women, and done as the sons of men do, and who have greatly corrupted the earth, they shall never obtain peace or remission of sin, they shall not rejoice in their offspring, they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved, they shall lament for the destruction of their sons.'[53] This doomed offspring is emphatically described in the Clementine Homilies[54] as 'bastards,' begotten of the 'fire of angels and the blood of women.' The language is typical, the imagery physiological. The offspring are giants, that is types of typhonian powers which were lawless, and existed before the establishment of time and period, hence the non-respect to female periodicity in the figures employed! Hence also it is said, 'The souls of those who are dead cry out and complain even to the gate of heaven,'[55] these are the souls that should have been human, waiting to be born, and frustrated in fulfilling their earthly existence, because of this non-natural relationship which has filled the earth with iniquity and corruption. The language of the myth has the same basis in physics as that of the eating of the forbidden fruit and consequent fall of man. The watchers are tempted like the Adamic pair to eat of the carnal tree; and as in the one fable the act brings death into the world, in the other the earth is deprived of her children that should have been born but were abortions. Indeed, one of the watchers, Gadrel, he who discovered every stroke of death to the children of men, is singled out and said to have been the seducer of Eve[56].

    How the physiological origin dominated the figurative expression may be judged by the exclamation of Esdras for the climax of [p.107] confusion, 'and menstruous women shall bring forth monsters!'[57]—the monsters and giants of the mythos, which relate to the keeping of time and period, first in the human domain, next in the celestial, and lastly in the spiritual sense. The fallen stars then are period-breakers, and the mode of expressing this is in relation to the feminine periodicity. They are spoken of as guardians of time who have proved unfaithful to their trust. They are 'Stars which transgressed the commandment of God before their tune arrived, for they came not in their proper season, therefore was he offended with them, and bound them until the period of the consummation of their crimes.'[58] Enoch is carried to the summit of a mountain which reached to the top of heaven and is there shown the seven deposed stars or constellations, which appear 'like great blazing mountains, and like spirits entreating me.' The seven are the watchers who in the beginning were high in heaven, but who together with their fellows failed to keep time, and were cast out until the end of the secret or great year of precession, when the heavens were to be renewed. They are seen by Enoch, bound in a desolate place 'in which nothing was completed, and there I beheld neither the tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth.'[59] They who first emerged from chaos had here returned to chaos; for in that place there was neither the 'tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth' nothing but desolation. The seven appear as mountains because the mountain had been a figure of station and of the constellations; hence the seven mountains which represented them on earth. In like manner, the tree was not only imaged by seven branchesi, as it is on the Assyrian monuments, but also by the seven trees. The tree (vine) in the planisphere has seven branches, and this in the Codex Nazaraeus takes the form of seven vines[60]. So the staff of the twin brothers Kabil and Habil grew up into the seven trees. The total number of the stars that fell, leaders and followers together, who are described as alighting on Ardis, the summit of Mount Armon, was two hundred[61], and this is the exact number given in a Tongan tradition of creation which tells that when the islands were made, but before they were inhabited by reasonable beings, two hundred of the gods, male and female, took a great boat to go and see the earth which had been fished up from the sea by the god Tangaloa. So delighted were they with the newfound land that they broke up their big boat, intending to make smaller ones in which they should return. But after a time some of them died, and one of them, being divinely inspired, told them that since they had come to Tonga, breathed its air and eaten its fruits, thy should be mortal, and people the world with mortals. Then they were sad and [p.108] sorry that they had broken up their big boat. They set to work to build another, and went to sea hoping to reach Bolutu, the heaven they had left, but failing to find it they returned regretfully to Tonga[62]. Their great boat was the ark of the sphere in which the seven Cabiri had first sailed on their annual voyage through the celestial sea in the earliest cycle of time. The seven constellations may have included 200 stars.

  12. MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE FALLEN ANGELS PT. 3

    'In the Beginning it was so appointed that the Star Jupiter (Planet of Ahura-Mazda), was life towards the Creatures, not through its own nature, but on account of its being within the control (band), of the luminaries, (especially the signs of the zodiac, to whose protection the Good Creation was committed), and Saturn was death towards the Creatures. Both were in their supremacy at the beginning of the Creation, as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which is called Givan (living), for it is the place in which life is bestowed on it. And Saturn was in Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own venom and deadliness became more evident and dominant thereby. And it was when both shall (should) not be supreme that Gayomard was to commence his own life, which is the thirty years, (during which) Saturn came not again to supremacy, that is to Libra.' And 'at the time when Saturn came into Libra, Jupiter was in Capricornus.' That is while Saturn performed one revolution about the Sun, Jupiter performed two and a half his cycle consisting of eleven years and three hundred and fifteen days, so that when Saturn was again supreme, the reviving influence of Jupiter was at its minimum power, on account of the small altitude of Capricorn. Cancer and Capricorn were the two signs in which the end of a world was fabled to occur by a conflagration and a deluge. In consequence of this victory of Saturn over Jupiter, 'Gayomard suffered through those very defects which came and are to continue advancing, the continuance of that disfigurement which Aharman can bring upon the creatures of Ahura-Mazda.'[32]

    Here it occurs to me, that the same mode of reckoning and adjusting the reckonings is described on the cuneiform tablet, when 'Bel goes to Elam.' 'At last, after thirty years the Smitten are restored the Great Gods return with them.'[33] This appears to refer to the cycle of thirty years, the Egyptian Heb-Sut or festival of the Triakontaeteridae, which was probably regulated by or in relation to Saturn's revolution, and thirty years of three hundred and sixty days. The restoration of the smitten, and the return of the Great Gods to their supremacy would then be a metaphorical mode of describing the readjustment of the year, and the reckoning according to the fixed rules.

    The deviation of Sothis from the true solar time—in its heliacal [p.102] rising—which was allowed for annually, and rectified every 1,460 years, was considered to be the work of the opposing powers of disorder, falsehood, and chaos; these were depicted as gaining thus much ground according to the typical mode of representation, and such seems to be the meaning of this restoration of the smitten and the return of the Great Gods at the end of thirty years. The attack was made on Gayomard and Gôshurvan by the evil power, the enemy of true periodicity, and he who had been brilliant as the sun, now waned in the shadow of eclipse. When he issued from his sweat or swoon in which the youth was formed out of him, the whole world was dark as night, and swarming with all kinds of noxious creatures of Aharman. And it was at the 'coming of a planetary star into planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets all at sixes and sevens; (literally in fours and fives), that many dark forms with the face and curls of Azi-Dahak suffered punishment.'[34]

    The planetary star of Sothis was Mercury, who is Sut-Anubis under his planetary type; but there was also a lunar Mercury or Hermanubis. When Ahura-Mazda's creatures had been disfigured, then through the same deterioration his own great glory was exhibited; for he came within the sky like an intrepid warrior, who has put on metal armour; and the sky in its fortress (burgo, which also means the zodiacal signs), spoke these hasty deceitful words to Aharman, thus:

    '"Now, when thou shalt have come in, I will not let thee back;" and it obstructed him until Ahura-Mazda prepared another rampart that is stronger around the sky, which is called "righteous understanding." And he arranged the guardian spirits of the righteous who are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses and spear in hand in such a manner, as the hair on the head (or thick as hairs on the head); and they acquired the appearance of prison guards who watch a prison front outside, and would not surrender the outer boundaries to an enemy descended from the inside. Immediately, Aharman endeavours that he may go back to his own complete darkness, but he found no passage; and he recapitulated, with seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness which is to arise at the appearance of the renovation (of the universe) at the end of the nine thousand years. This was the first contest, that of the sky, with Aharman.'[35]

    Thus, it is said, 'Both Spirits (the Dark and the light) have come to the body of Gayomard,'[36] which statement may be illustrated by the type of Sut-Horus or Sut Nub-ti with the double head, one black, one bright, denoting the dark and light spirits, the two representatives of time, as true and untrue, of order and disorder, of upper and lower, of heaven and earth, the horizon of darkness and death, and the horizon of the resurrection. The meaning is this: Sothis was [p.103] discovered to be losing time—in its heliacal rising—it lost one whole year every 1,460 years; and the lunar Hermes-Anubis (described later) came to the assistance of the lagging timekeeper, the two being compounded as Sut-Anup the golden dog of Sothis.

    The first timekeepers were constellations, not the planets, but the stars of fixed station, which turned round with the sphere as do the Bears, Kepheus, Orion, Hydra, the Eagle or Vulture, and the rest. Next the planets were added and combined with these.

    'All the original creations residing in the World' are committed to the keeping of the constellations which have especial charge of the welfare of creation: 'So that when the Destroyer arrives, they overcome the Adversary and their own persecution, and the creatures are saved from their Adversaries,' and 'As a specimen of a warlike Army, which is destined for battle, they have ordained every single constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as assistants, and among those constellations "four chieftains," appointed on the four sides, are Leaders.' On the recommendation of these four chieftains, the unnumbered stars were assigned to the various quarters and places. 'It is said that Tishtar is the chieftain of the east, Sataves the chieftain of the west, Vanand the chieftain of the south, and Hapto-ringa the chieftain of the north.'[37] Hapto-ringa is the constellation of Ursa Major or the seven Bears.

    Tishtar is identified with Sirius, the other two are less certain, but most probably Antares in Scorpio and Fomalhaut in Pisces Australis are intended. Also the four are certain to be the gods of the four quarters who are found in so many mythologies. In the Avesta these watchers in the four quarters of the heavens are called Tistrya in the east; Satavaesa in the west; Vanand in the south, and Hapto-ringa (the seven Bears) in the north. Furthermore, the Bundahish[38], says, 'Seven chieftains of the planets have come in to the Seven chieftains of the constellations. The planet Mercury (Tir) unto Tishtar; the planet Mars unto Haptok-ring (the seven Bears, the female companions of Tishtar); the planet Jupiter (Ahura-Mazda) unto Vanand; the planet Venus (Anahid) unto Sataves; the planet Saturn unto the great (one) of the middle of the sky, Gôkihar*; and the thievish Muspar (or Mus-parika), provided with tails, unto the Sun, Moon, and Stars.'[39]

    * Gôkihar. Windischmann would read Gurgkihar, wolf-progeny[40].

    The main point here, however, is that Mercury is the servant of Sothis—its messenger, its dog, who became its bright and better half in the reckoning of time, the period of the one being corrected and kept by the other. Plutarch suggested that the horizon immediately before the rising and immediately after the setting of the sun was symbolized by Anubis[41]. Renouf says, 'I believe that he represents the twilight or dusk immediately following the [p.104] disappearance of the Sun.'[42] But Anubis is the guide of ways, the guide of Isis, and of Sothis, the discoverer of the sun, the conductor of souls. He was typified by the jackal that came out at dusk, and was painted with a black head, as guide of the western land, and the jackal was the golden dog, as the guide to the horizon of the resurrection.

    What is needed here is a star of the dusk, that is a guide to the sun. This is to be found in the planet Mercury which is sometimes a morning and at others an evening star. This planet was given to Sothis as her guide and assistant, hence Anup accompanies Isis the genetrix in her search for the lost Osiris and is the guide of souls through the underworld of the dead, and was like Nebo the keeper of the morning and evening gate of souls, as well as of the sun, because he was the god of the morning and evening star. As evening star he presided over the burial of the sun, and was made the deity of embalmment and burial. As star of morning he restored the eye of the sun at the dawn of day not merely as the dusk or twilight, but as the herald light, the guide of ways, and conductor of the solar orb. Mercury watched at dusk over the closing grave of sunset, and at dawn he rose and preceded the resurrection of the sun. Sut-Anubis was Hermes-Anubis, who preceded Taht, in his lunar phase (yet to be described), and Mercury in his planetary character.

    Moreover, there are seven spirits associated with the Great Bear. Anup makes their places, and stations them for the protection of the coffin of Osiris, i.e., the constellation of Ursa Major. The seven spirits are the gods of the seven constellations that preceded the seven planets and were finally superseded by them or compounded with them. There are eight altogether, considered as the genetrix and her progeny. The seven furnished a type which was continued in the lunar and solar phases of the mythos. They were typhonian at first, and Sut (Sevekh) was the chief of the seven. When lunar time had been established, Taht was made the manifestor, word or speech. When Ptah, a solar god, although not the sun, was created, the seven as the Khnemu are called his sons. And the eight-rayed star remained a type of the solar manifestor of the final pleroma of the godhead[43]. The eight are included under the type of the female dragon and her seven heads in the Akkadian legends. The original eight were elementaries in Egypt who had been represented under zoological types. These were afterwards more or less humanized when they became watchers and timekeepers, and personification had succeeded the earlier mode of representation. This is mentioned in passing because the change of type to the human form may have a bearing on the marriage of the sons of God who saw the daughters of men were fair, and took them wives from the women [p.105] of earth, who are charged with leading them astray in order that they might salute them[44]. In their second phase the seven (eight with the mother) became the watchers in heaven that failed to keep the true time; the betsh party who were degraded as the children of inertness, laziness, and revolt, and the sluggish 'Animals of Satan,' the standers-still, the 'Fools' and 'Sleepers' of later legends; they who, like Orion, were discovered to be bound in heaven and held to be fools and blind; or, as we say, they were fixed stars, that only turned with the sphere, not movers of themselves. Moreover, they were discovered to be losing time all together in the course of precession, and so they were fabled to have been lifeless laggards, or, it was said they had fallen in love with the women of earth and were of the earth earthy—not true celestial beings, nor trustworthy watchers.

     

  13. MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE FALLEN ANGELS PT. 2
    Periodical time was so profoundly important a subject of the early thought, and the orbs of heaven were demonstrators so august and glorious, that no conception of unfaithfulness, of failing in duty, of being treacherous to all trust, could have been embodied in more appealing or appalling imagery than this of the stars, the eternal watchers in Heaven proving false to the watchers on earth, who had trusted them for their periodic time; the luminaries themselves breaking the law of light and siding with the dragon of darkness, the akhekh monster of eclipse, the primal cause of all obstruction, disorder, and confusion in external phenomena! When this was first observed, it must have seemed as if they had lost their one firm bit of solid foothold in the infinite; as if the uniformity on which they had based the stability of [p.98] the universe were found to be failing them. At least this is the impression made by the mythos.

    The Persian 'Revelation,' as the Parsee writings are termed, contains some of the most valuable and definite matter extant for the understanding of the story of the Fall. In these scriptures the first creation is emphatically the birth of Time itself. For '"Three thousand years the creatures were possessed of bodies and (had) not (been) walking on their navels. The sun, moon, and stars stood still." In the mischievous incursion at the end of the period, Ahura-Mazda observed thus: "What advantage is there from the creation of a creature although thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous?" And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the creature Time, and Time is unrestricted, so that he made the creatures of Ahura-Masda moving, distinct from the motion of Aharman's creatures, for the shedders of perfume were standing one opposite to the other while emitting it. And observantly of the end, he brought forward to Aharman a means out of himself the property of darkness, with which the extreme limits of Time were connected by him, an envelope of the black-pated and ash-coloured kind.'[15]

    The creatures of Aharman (here described as preceding time) that were unmoving and mischievous, are identical by nature with the elementaries of Egypt, the children of laziness, inertness, and revolt, who ruled in Chaos as the progeny of the evil Typhon. The ancient phraseology makes the matter seem remote, but it relates to the establishment of day and night, light and dark, and the limits of the grey twilight, in which the two powers met to mingle as co-partners in the production of time as a day and night, the time of the Asvins, or Sut and Horus. The evil spirit Aharman, the opponent of the spirit of light, in the Bundahish, is identical with the Apophis of the Ritual, the eternal enemy of the sun. Ahura-Mazda lives in a region of limitless light; Aharman dwells in a domain that is endlessly dark. Then the evil spirit arose from the abyss and came in unto the light which he saw[16], and rushed forward to destroy.

    'Aharman came from accompanying Time out to the front, out to the star-station, and having darkness with himself he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky extends as much as one-third over the star-station.'[17]

    So in the Bundahish, the evil spirit rushed towards the luminaries. 'He stood upon one-third of the inside of the sky, and he sprang like a snake out of the sky down to the earth.'[18] It is also said that his shadow covered one-third of the base of the sky in a downward direction, and that darkness, without an eyelid, was brought on by him. The same measure of darkness over-spreading the sky is employed in John's Revelation: 'And there appeared a dragon in [p.99] heaven having seven heads, and his tail drew a third part of the stars of Heaven and did cast them to the earth. And there was war in Heaven.' 'And the great dragon was cast out into the Earth, and his angels were cast out with him.'[19]

    The attack of Aharman is not limited to indefinite darkness. It takes form in an eclipse, and the exact time of an assault on the celestial luminaries is given. 'In the month Fravardin and the day of Ahura-Mazda (that is at the time of the vernal equinox), he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was as shattered and frightened as a sheep is by a wolf.'[20] The time identifies this manifestation of the Evil One with the dragon of eclipse, this being the season of lunar eclipses, and the period of rebirth for the young sun-god[21].

    The first demon named as an assistant of the Evil One is the wicked Géh, who is a personification of the impurity of menstruation. The Dark Mind, or Devil, Aharman, is represented as powerless, and unable to make a breach in the good creation until the coming of Gêh at the completion of the three thousand years[22] of confusion that followed the first vain assault made by darkness upon the light. Thus menstruation, the dark shadow of periodic time, the solution of continuity, is here represented as an equivalent in one domain of nature to the dark break in the circle of light caused by Aharman's eclipse in the other. So when Ahura-Mazda had created Hapta-Hendu, the opposition of the dark deity was shown in producing irregular menstruation[23]. These, then, are two periodic breaches made in continuity, or time, considered to be the shadow projected on creation by the Evil Mind, the dragon of eclipse.

    The next assault is described as having been made on the primeval ox called Gayomard, who is now to be identified with the star Sothis and Haptoringa, the seven Bears—two stellar types north and south of her who was set in heaven as the mother-goddess of time. The primeval ox, the sole-created, is distinctly stated in the Selections of Zad-Sparam[24] to have been female at first. 'It was a female white and brilliant as the moon.' This agrees with the Egyptian form of Sothis described as the female bull which was originally the cow (or the water-cow). From the ox there were produced for Airyana-Vaêjo, a pair of oxen, male and female. This likewise agrees with the Egyptian beginning. The cow (or water-cow) is female in the north, and has a masculine character as Sothis in the south, the forepart being male.

    As Plutarch says, 'The souls of the Gods are stars shining in Heaven. The soul of Isis is called the Dog by the Greeks, but by the Egyptians Sothis; that of Horus Orion; and that of Typhon the Bear.'[25] The soul of Isis (genetrix) was said to dwell in the Dog-star. So Gôshurvan, [p.100] as the soul of the primeval ox Gayomard, is a female. She comes forth from the ox as its soul, after its fall, and asks the creator where is the promised seed, the man of whom it was said by Ahura-Mazda, 'I will produce him so that he may preach carefulness against another fall. And Ahura-Mazda said, 'You are made ill, O Gôshurvan! you have the illness which the evil spirit brought on (the Gêh). Forth Gôshurvan walked to the Star-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Moon-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Sun-Station, and then the Guardian Spirit of Zaratusht was exhibited to her, and Ahura-Mazda said this: "I will produce for the world him who will preach carefulness." Contented became the spirit Gôshurvan, and assented thus: "I will nourish the creatures," that is, she became again consenting to a worldly creation in the world.'[26] This was when the adversary had prevailed over Gayomard, or as may be illustrated, if not interpreted, when Sothis was discovered to be lapsing and losing time, and the true, the solar timekeeper is promised to be brought forth by the ancient genetrix. Gayomard, as the ox (male), repeats the bull of the seven cows, or seven stars, in the Egyptian Ritual. Before the coming of Aharman, Ahura-Mazda had 'brought forth a sweat upon Gayomard so long as he might recite a prayer of one stanza. Moreover, Ahura-Mazda formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, radiant and tall. When Gayomard issued from that sweat he saw the world dark as night … the celestial sphere was in revolution, the sun and moon remained in motion; the world's struggle, owing to the clamour of the Mazinikan demons, was with the constellations.'[27]

    This duplicating of Gayomard by a second creation is in agreement with the formation of the dual-headed Sut-Horus, or Sut-Anubis. Anup like Horus is a typical youth. 'His Majesty was like a young Anup.'[28] Now, Sothis (Sirius) is known to be the star Tishtar.

    'The star Tistrya, the shining, majestic, we praise, who brings hither the circling years of time.'[29] The bull was one of the types of Tishtar, who, in the Vendidad[30] is expressly invoked as the golden bull. That is as Sut-Anta (Eg.). Also the female companions of Tishtar are invoked in the Khordah Avesta[31]. 'Tistrya praise we, the female companions of Tishtar praise we, the first (star) praise we, the female companions of the first star praise we; I praise the stars Hapto-ringa for resisting the sorcerers and parikas.' These are the seven Bears which, as the seven cows in the Ritual, are the seven female companions of the bull. They were also the sevenfold soul of the bull or Sothis. Thus Gayomard and the genetrix, who is called the soul of the bull (the giver of breath, or inspirer of life as the mother), are the same dyad, now identified [p.101] by the celestial phenomena, as the good Sut-Typhon. In the appointment of Time at first it was decreed that the period of Gayomard-Tishtar should be thirty years, the time of the Egyptian Sut-Heb, a Sothic festival. A reason is given for the failure or fail of Gayomard-Sothis, who came under the influence of the Dark Mind, the evil Aharman, the author of discord and dissolution, the antithesis of time and the law of light.

  14. MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE FALLEN ANGELS PT. 2
    Periodical time was so profoundly important a subject of the early thought, and the orbs of heaven were demonstrators so august and glorious, that no conception of unfaithfulness, of failing in duty, of being treacherous to all trust, could have been embodied in more appealing or appalling imagery than this of the stars, the eternal watchers in Heaven proving false to the watchers on earth, who had trusted them for their periodic time; the luminaries themselves breaking the law of light and siding with the dragon of darkness, the akhekh monster of eclipse, the primal cause of all obstruction, disorder, and confusion in external phenomena! When this was first observed, it must have seemed as if they had lost their one firm bit of solid foothold in the infinite; as if the uniformity on which they had based the stability of [p.98] the universe were found to be failing them. At least this is the impression made by the mythos.

    The Persian 'Revelation,' as the Parsee writings are termed, contains some of the most valuable and definite matter extant for the understanding of the story of the Fall. In these scriptures the first creation is emphatically the birth of Time itself. For '"Three thousand years the creatures were possessed of bodies and (had) not (been) walking on their navels. The sun, moon, and stars stood still." In the mischievous incursion at the end of the period, Ahura-Mazda observed thus: "What advantage is there from the creation of a creature although thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous?" And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the creature Time, and Time is unrestricted, so that he made the creatures of Ahura-Masda moving, distinct from the motion of Aharman's creatures, for the shedders of perfume were standing one opposite to the other while emitting it. And observantly of the end, he brought forward to Aharman a means out of himself the property of darkness, with which the extreme limits of Time were connected by him, an envelope of the black-pated and ash-coloured kind.'[15]

    The creatures of Aharman (here described as preceding time) that were unmoving and mischievous, are identical by nature with the elementaries of Egypt, the children of laziness, inertness, and revolt, who ruled in Chaos as the progeny of the evil Typhon. The ancient phraseology makes the matter seem remote, but it relates to the establishment of day and night, light and dark, and the limits of the grey twilight, in which the two powers met to mingle as co-partners in the production of time as a day and night, the time of the Asvins, or Sut and Horus. The evil spirit Aharman, the opponent of the spirit of light, in the Bundahish, is identical with the Apophis of the Ritual, the eternal enemy of the sun. Ahura-Mazda lives in a region of limitless light; Aharman dwells in a domain that is endlessly dark. Then the evil spirit arose from the abyss and came in unto the light which he saw[16], and rushed forward to destroy.

    'Aharman came from accompanying Time out to the front, out to the star-station, and having darkness with himself he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky extends as much as one-third over the star-station.'[17]

    So in the Bundahish, the evil spirit rushed towards the luminaries. 'He stood upon one-third of the inside of the sky, and he sprang like a snake out of the sky down to the earth.'[18] It is also said that his shadow covered one-third of the base of the sky in a downward direction, and that darkness, without an eyelid, was brought on by him. The same measure of darkness over-spreading the sky is employed in John's Revelation: 'And there appeared a dragon in [p.99] heaven having seven heads, and his tail drew a third part of the stars of Heaven and did cast them to the earth. And there was war in Heaven.' 'And the great dragon was cast out into the Earth, and his angels were cast out with him.'[19]

    The attack of Aharman is not limited to indefinite darkness. It takes form in an eclipse, and the exact time of an assault on the celestial luminaries is given. 'In the month Fravardin and the day of Ahura-Mazda (that is at the time of the vernal equinox), he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was as shattered and frightened as a sheep is by a wolf.'[20] The time identifies this manifestation of the Evil One with the dragon of eclipse, this being the season of lunar eclipses, and the period of rebirth for the young sun-god[21].

    The first demon named as an assistant of the Evil One is the wicked Géh, who is a personification of the impurity of menstruation. The Dark Mind, or Devil, Aharman, is represented as powerless, and unable to make a breach in the good creation until the coming of Gêh at the completion of the three thousand years[22] of confusion that followed the first vain assault made by darkness upon the light. Thus menstruation, the dark shadow of periodic time, the solution of continuity, is here represented as an equivalent in one domain of nature to the dark break in the circle of light caused by Aharman's eclipse in the other. So when Ahura-Mazda had created Hapta-Hendu, the opposition of the dark deity was shown in producing irregular menstruation[23]. These, then, are two periodic breaches made in continuity, or time, considered to be the shadow projected on creation by the Evil Mind, the dragon of eclipse.

    The next assault is described as having been made on the primeval ox called Gayomard, who is now to be identified with the star Sothis and Haptoringa, the seven Bears—two stellar types north and south of her who was set in heaven as the mother-goddess of time. The primeval ox, the sole-created, is distinctly stated in the Selections of Zad-Sparam[24] to have been female at first. 'It was a female white and brilliant as the moon.' This agrees with the Egyptian form of Sothis described as the female bull which was originally the cow (or the water-cow). From the ox there were produced for Airyana-Vaêjo, a pair of oxen, male and female. This likewise agrees with the Egyptian beginning. The cow (or water-cow) is female in the north, and has a masculine character as Sothis in the south, the forepart being male.

    As Plutarch says, 'The souls of the Gods are stars shining in Heaven. The soul of Isis is called the Dog by the Greeks, but by the Egyptians Sothis; that of Horus Orion; and that of Typhon the Bear.'[25] The soul of Isis (genetrix) was said to dwell in the Dog-star. So Gôshurvan, [p.100] as the soul of the primeval ox Gayomard, is a female. She comes forth from the ox as its soul, after its fall, and asks the creator where is the promised seed, the man of whom it was said by Ahura-Mazda, 'I will produce him so that he may preach carefulness against another fall. And Ahura-Mazda said, 'You are made ill, O Gôshurvan! you have the illness which the evil spirit brought on (the Gêh). Forth Gôshurvan walked to the Star-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Moon-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Sun-Station, and then the Guardian Spirit of Zaratusht was exhibited to her, and Ahura-Mazda said this: "I will produce for the world him who will preach carefulness." Contented became the spirit Gôshurvan, and assented thus: "I will nourish the creatures," that is, she became again consenting to a worldly creation in the world.'[26] This was when the adversary had prevailed over Gayomard, or as may be illustrated, if not interpreted, when Sothis was discovered to be lapsing and losing time, and the true, the solar timekeeper is promised to be brought forth by the ancient genetrix. Gayomard, as the ox (male), repeats the bull of the seven cows, or seven stars, in the Egyptian Ritual. Before the coming of Aharman, Ahura-Mazda had 'brought forth a sweat upon Gayomard so long as he might recite a prayer of one stanza. Moreover, Ahura-Mazda formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, radiant and tall. When Gayomard issued from that sweat he saw the world dark as night … the celestial sphere was in revolution, the sun and moon remained in motion; the world's struggle, owing to the clamour of the Mazinikan demons, was with the constellations.'[27]

    This duplicating of Gayomard by a second creation is in agreement with the formation of the dual-headed Sut-Horus, or Sut-Anubis. Anup like Horus is a typical youth. 'His Majesty was like a young Anup.'[28] Now, Sothis (Sirius) is known to be the star Tishtar.

    'The star Tistrya, the shining, majestic, we praise, who brings hither the circling years of time.'[29] The bull was one of the types of Tishtar, who, in the Vendidad[30] is expressly invoked as the golden bull. That is as Sut-Anta (Eg.). Also the female companions of Tishtar are invoked in the Khordah Avesta[31]. 'Tistrya praise we, the female companions of Tishtar praise we, the first (star) praise we, the female companions of the first star praise we; I praise the stars Hapto-ringa for resisting the sorcerers and parikas.' These are the seven Bears which, as the seven cows in the Ritual, are the seven female companions of the bull. They were also the sevenfold soul of the bull or Sothis. Thus Gayomard and the genetrix, who is called the soul of the bull (the giver of breath, or inspirer of life as the mother), are the same dyad, now identified [p.101] by the celestial phenomena, as the good Sut-Typhon. In the appointment of Time at first it was decreed that the period of Gayomard-Tishtar should be thirty years, the time of the Egyptian Sut-Heb, a Sothic festival. A reason is given for the failure or fail of Gayomard-Sothis, who came under the influence of the Dark Mind, the evil Aharman, the author of discord and dissolution, the antithesis of time and the law of light.

    'In the Beginning it was so appointed that the Star Jupiter (Planet of Ahura-Mazda), was life towards the Creatures, not through its own nature, but on account of its being within the control (band), of the luminaries, (especially the signs of the zodiac, to whose protection the Good Creation was committed), and Saturn was death towards the Creatures. Both were in their supremacy at the beginning of the Creation, as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which is called Givan (living), for it is the place in which life is bestowed on it. And Saturn was in Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own venom and deadliness became more evident and dominant thereby. And it was when both shall (should) not be supreme that Gayomard was to commence his own life, which is the thirty years, (during which) Saturn came not again to supremacy, that is to Libra.' And 'at the time when Saturn came into Libra, Jupiter was in Capricornus.' That is while Saturn performed one revolution about the Sun, Jupiter performed two and a half his cycle consisting of eleven years and three hundred and fifteen days, so that when Saturn was again supreme, the reviving influence of Jupiter was at its minimum power, on account of the small altitude of Capricorn. Cancer and Capricorn were the two signs in which the end of a world was fabled to occur by a conflagration and a deluge. In consequence of this victory of Saturn over Jupiter, 'Gayomard suffered through those very defects which came and are to continue advancing, the continuance of that disfigurement which Aharman can bring upon the creatures of Ahura-Mazda.'[32]

    Here it occurs to me, that the same mode of reckoning and adjusting the reckonings is described on the cuneiform tablet, when 'Bel goes to Elam.' 'At last, after thirty years the Smitten are restored the Great Gods return with them.'[33] This appears to refer to the cycle of thirty years, the Egyptian Heb-Sut or festival of the Triakontaeteridae, which was probably regulated by or in relation to Saturn's revolution, and thirty years of three hundred and sixty days. The restoration of the smitten, and the return of the Great Gods to their supremacy would then be a metaphorical mode of describing the readjustment of the year, and the reckoning according to the fixed rules.

    The deviation of Sothis from the true solar time—in its heliacal [p.102] rising—which was allowed for annually, and rectified every 1,460 years, was considered to be the work of the opposing powers of disorder, falsehood, and chaos; these were depicted as gaining thus much ground according to the typical mode of representation, and such seems to be the meaning of this restoration of the smitten and the return of the Great Gods at the end of thirty years. The attack was made on Gayomard and Gôshurvan by the evil power, the enemy of true periodicity, and he who had been brilliant as the sun, now waned in the shadow of eclipse. When he issued from his sweat or swoon in which the youth was formed out of him, the whole world was dark as night, and swarming with all kinds of noxious creatures of Aharman. And it was at the 'coming of a planetary star into planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets all at sixes and sevens; (literally in fours and fives), that many dark forms with the face and curls of Azi-Dahak suffered punishment.'[34]

    The planetary star of Sothis was Mercury, who is Sut-Anubis under his planetary type; but there was also a lunar Mercury or Hermanubis. When Ahura-Mazda's creatures had been disfigured, then through the same deterioration his own great glory was exhibited; for he came within the sky like an intrepid warrior, who has put on metal armour; and the sky in its fortress (burgo, which also means the zodiacal signs), spoke these hasty deceitful words to Aharman, thus:

    '"Now, when thou shalt have come in, I will not let thee back;" and it obstructed him until Ahura-Mazda prepared another rampart that is stronger around the sky, which is called "righteous understanding." And he arranged the guardian spirits of the righteous who are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses and spear in hand in such a manner, as the hair on the head (or thick as hairs on the head); and they acquired the appearance of prison guards who watch a prison front outside, and would not surrender the outer boundaries to an enemy descended from the inside. Immediately, Aharman endeavours that he may go back to his own complete darkness, but he found no passage; and he recapitulated, with seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness which is to arise at the appearance of the renovation (of the universe) at the end of the nine thousand years. This was the first contest, that of the sky, with Aharman.'[35]

    Thus, it is said, 'Both Spirits (the Dark and the light) have come to the body of Gayomard,'[36] which statement may be illustrated by the type of Sut-Horus or Sut Nub-ti with the double head, one black, one bright, denoting the dark and light spirits, the two representatives of time, as true and untrue, of order and disorder, of upper and lower, of heaven and earth, the horizon of darkness and death, and the horizon of the resurrection. The meaning is this: Sothis was [p.103] discovered to be losing time—in its heliacal rising—it lost one whole year every 1,460 years; and the lunar Hermes-Anubis (described later) came to the assistance of the lagging timekeeper, the two being compounded as Sut-Anup the golden dog of Sothis.

    The first timekeepers were constellations, not the planets, but the stars of fixed station, which turned round with the sphere as do the Bears, Kepheus, Orion, Hydra, the Eagle or Vulture, and the rest. Next the planets were added and combined with these.

    'All the original creations residing in the World' are committed to the keeping of the constellations which have especial charge of the welfare of creation: 'So that when the Destroyer arrives, they overcome the Adversary and their own persecution, and the creatures are saved from their Adversaries,' and 'As a specimen of a warlike Army, which is destined for battle, they have ordained every single constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as assistants, and among those constellations "four chieftains," appointed on the four sides, are Leaders.' On the recommendation of these four chieftains, the unnumbered stars were assigned to the various quarters and places. 'It is said that Tishtar is the chieftain of the east, Sataves the chieftain of the west, Vanand the chieftain of the south, and Hapto-ringa the chieftain of the north.'[37] Hapto-ringa is the constellation of Ursa Major or the seven Bears.

    Tishtar is identified with Sirius, the other two are less certain, but most probably Antares in Scorpio and Fomalhaut in Pisces Australis are intended. Also the four are certain to be the gods of the four quarters who are found in so many mythologies. In the Avesta these watchers in the four quarters of the heavens are called Tistrya in the east; Satavaesa in the west; Vanand in the south, and Hapto-ringa (the seven Bears) in the north. Furthermore, the Bundahish[38], says, 'Seven chieftains of the planets have come in to the Seven chieftains of the constellations. The planet Mercury (Tir) unto Tishtar; the planet Mars unto Haptok-ring (the seven Bears, the female companions of Tishtar); the planet Jupiter (Ahura-Mazda) unto Vanand; the planet Venus (Anahid) unto Sataves; the planet Saturn unto the great (one) of the middle of the sky, Gôkihar*; and the thievish Muspar (or Mus-parika), provided with tails, unto the Sun, Moon, and Stars.'[39]

    * Gôkihar. Windischmann would read Gurgkihar, wolf-progeny[40].

    The main point here, however, is that Mercury is the servant of Sothis—its messenger, its dog, who became its bright and better half in the reckoning of time, the period of the one being corrected and kept by the other. Plutarch suggested that the horizon immediately before the rising and immediately after the setting of the sun was symbolized by Anubis[41]. Renouf says, 'I believe that he represents the twilight or dusk immediately following the [p.104] disappearance of the Sun.'[42] But Anubis is the guide of ways, the guide of Isis, and of Sothis, the discoverer of the sun, the conductor of souls. He was typified by the jackal that came out at dusk, and was painted with a black head, as guide of the western land, and the jackal was the golden dog, as the guide to the horizon of the resurrection.

    What is needed here is a star of the dusk, that is a guide to the sun. This is to be found in the planet Mercury which is sometimes a morning and at others an evening star. This planet was given to Sothis as her guide and assistant, hence Anup accompanies Isis the genetrix in her search for the lost Osiris and is the guide of souls through the underworld of the dead, and was like Nebo the keeper of the morning and evening gate of souls, as well as of the sun, because he was the god of the morning and evening star. As evening star he presided over the burial of the sun, and was made the deity of embalmment and burial. As star of morning he restored the eye of the sun at the dawn of day not merely as the dusk or twilight, but as the herald light, the guide of ways, and conductor of the solar orb. Mercury watched at dusk over the closing grave of sunset, and at dawn he rose and preceded the resurrection of the sun. Sut-Anubis was Hermes-Anubis, who preceded Taht, in his lunar phase (yet to be described), and Mercury in his planetary character.

    Moreover, there are seven spirits associated with the Great Bear. Anup makes their places, and stations them for the protection of the coffin of Osiris, i.e., the constellation of Ursa Major. The seven spirits are the gods of the seven constellations that preceded the seven planets and were finally superseded by them or compounded with them. There are eight altogether, considered as the genetrix and her progeny. The seven furnished a type which was continued in the lunar and solar phases of the mythos. They were typhonian at first, and Sut (Sevekh) was the chief of the seven. When lunar time had been established, Taht was made the manifestor, word or speech. When Ptah, a solar god, although not the sun, was created, the seven as the Khnemu are called his sons. And the eight-rayed star remained a type of the solar manifestor of the final pleroma of the godhead[43]. The eight are included under the type of the female dragon and her seven heads in the Akkadian legends. The original eight were elementaries in Egypt who had been represented under zoological types. These were afterwards more or less humanized when they became watchers and timekeepers, and personification had succeeded the earlier mode of representation. This is mentioned in passing because the change of type to the human form may have a bearing on the marriage of the sons of God who saw the daughters of men were fair, and took them wives from the women [p.105] of earth, who are charged with leading them astray in order that they might salute them[44]. In their second phase the seven (eight with the mother) became the watchers in heaven that failed to keep the true time; the betsh party who were degraded as the children of inertness, laziness, and revolt, and the sluggish 'Animals of Satan,' the standers-still, the 'Fools' and 'Sleepers' of later legends; they who, like Orion, were discovered to be bound in heaven and held to be fools and blind; or, as we say, they were fixed stars, that only turned with the sphere, not movers of themselves. Moreover, they were discovered to be losing time all together in the course of precession, and so they were fabled to have been lifeless laggards, or, it was said they had fallen in love with the women of earth and were of the earth earthy—not true celestial beings, nor trustworthy watchers.

     

    Hence the mythos of the fall in heaven. The fallen ogdoad survived in the Moslem traditions as the 'seven sleepers and their dog Al-Rakim.' In the Koran[45] it is asked, 'Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave, and Al-Rakim, were one of our signs and a great miracle?' In this version Al-Rakim takes the place of the dog, the companion of the seven sleepers of Ephesus. The companions of the cave are here said to have been struck deaf, and to have slept undisturbed for a long time, and then the Lord awoke them that we might know 'which of the two parties was more exact in computing the space that the sleepers had remained there,' according to which statement they were of the nature of timekeepers, and therefore belong to the astronomical allegory. 'Some say the sleepers were three, and their dog was the fourth,' as was the opinion of Al-Seyid, a Jacobite Christian of Najrân[46]. 'Others say they were seven, and their dog was the eighth.' 'And this was the true opinion.'[47] The four can be identified with the genii of the four corners, who are four of the seven spirits of the bear and the dog.

    The time of their waking is that of the final resurrection of souls and the renovation of all things. There was a tradition at Ephesus that St. John was not dead, but sleeping there until the consummation or end of the world should come; and this points to the seven churches of Asia as having been founded on the seven constellations in the celestial heptanomis, the seven spirits of which appear 'before the throne' in the Book of Revelation[48] just as they do in the Egyptian Ritual[49].

    It was in the time of the Nephilim (םיליפנ), as described in the Book of Genesis[50], that certain transactions occurred which led to a deluge. The Nephilim, called the giants, are the fallen ones. לפנ means to fall down, to fall down from heaven, to be overthrown, to be abortive, or an untimely birth. These fallen ones correspond to the celestial giants of the primary world or cycle of time who failed and [p.106] fell. In their time it is said the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they cohabited with them[51]. The legend is developed at length in the Book of Enoch where they appear as the 'Watchers' of heaven. In this version of the mythos they are the celestial watchers in the astronomical sense, the disposers and timekeepers, recognized as seven in number. The language is not to be understood apart from the total typology of the subject. The crime charged against Samyaza, Azazel, and their fallen fellows is that they have known and taught a reprobated or unworthy mystery[52]; this they have 'related to women in the hardness of their hearts;' and by that mystery, they have 'multiplied evils upon the earth.' They 'have associated with women, that they might be polluted with all their impurity.' They have discovered crimes to them. It is said to them, 'You being spiritual, and possessing a life which is eternal, have polluted yourselves with women, have coupled in carnal blood, have lusted in the blood of men.' 'They have disclosed to the world all the secret things which are done in the heavens.' 'Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky and their holy, everlasting station, who have been polluted with women, and done as the sons of men do, and who have greatly corrupted the earth, they shall never obtain peace or remission of sin, they shall not rejoice in their offspring, they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved, they shall lament for the destruction of their sons.'[53] This doomed offspring is emphatically described in the Clementine Homilies[54] as 'bastards,' begotten of the 'fire of angels and the blood of women.' The language is typical, the imagery physiological. The offspring are giants, that is types of typhonian powers which were lawless, and existed before the establishment of time and period, hence the non-respect to female periodicity in the figures employed! Hence also it is said, 'The souls of those who are dead cry out and complain even to the gate of heaven,'[55] these are the souls that should have been human, waiting to be born, and frustrated in fulfilling their earthly existence, because of this non-natural relationship which has filled the earth with iniquity and corruption. The language of the myth has the same basis in physics as that of the eating of the forbidden fruit and consequent fall of man. The watchers are tempted like the Adamic pair to eat of the carnal tree; and as in the one fable the act brings death into the world, in the other the earth is deprived of her children that should have been born but were abortions. Indeed, one of the watchers, Gadrel, he who discovered every stroke of death to the children of men, is singled out and said to have been the seducer of Eve[56].

    How the physiological origin dominated the figurative expression may be judged by the exclamation of Esdras for the climax of [p.107] confusion, 'and menstruous women shall bring forth monsters!'[57]—the monsters and giants of the mythos, which relate to the keeping of time and period, first in the human domain, next in the celestial, and lastly in the spiritual sense. The fallen stars then are period-breakers, and the mode of expressing this is in relation to the feminine periodicity. They are spoken of as guardians of time who have proved unfaithful to their trust. They are 'Stars which transgressed the commandment of God before their tune arrived, for they came not in their proper season, therefore was he offended with them, and bound them until the period of the consummation of their crimes.'[58] Enoch is carried to the summit of a mountain which reached to the top of heaven and is there shown the seven deposed stars or constellations, which appear 'like great blazing mountains, and like spirits entreating me.' The seven are the watchers who in the beginning were high in heaven, but who together with their fellows failed to keep time, and were cast out until the end of the secret or great year of precession, when the heavens were to be renewed. They are seen by Enoch, bound in a desolate place 'in which nothing was completed, and there I beheld neither the tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth.'[59] They who first emerged from chaos had here returned to chaos; for in that place there was neither the 'tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth' nothing but desolation. The seven appear as mountains because the mountain had been a figure of station and of the constellations; hence the seven mountains which represented them on earth. In like manner, the tree was not only imaged by seven branchesi, as it is on the Assyrian monuments, but also by the seven trees. The tree (vine) in the planisphere has seven branches, and this in the Codex Nazaraeus takes the form of seven vines[60]. So the staff of the twin brothers Kabil and Habil grew up into the seven trees. The total number of the stars that fell, leaders and followers together, who are described as alighting on Ardis, the summit of Mount Armon, was two hundred[61], and this is the exact number given in a Tongan tradition of creation which tells that when the islands were made, but before they were inhabited by reasonable beings, two hundred of the gods, male and female, took a great boat to go and see the earth which had been fished up from the sea by the god Tangaloa. So delighted were they with the newfound land that they broke up their big boat, intending to make smaller ones in which they should return. But after a time some of them died, and one of them, being divinely inspired, told them that since they had come to Tonga, breathed its air and eaten its fruits, thy should be mortal, and people the world with mortals. Then they were sad and [p.108] sorry that they had broken up their big boat. They set to work to build another, and went to sea hoping to reach Bolutu, the heaven they had left, but failing to find it they returned regretfully to Tonga[62]. Their great boat was the ark of the sphere in which the seven Cabiri had first sailed on their annual voyage through the celestial sea in the earliest cycle of time. The seven constellations may have included 200 stars.

  15. THE MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE FALLEN ANGELS
    It has been shown that the 'gods' of mythology in general are of two classes or types, namely those of the elementary forces of nature which dominated in Chaos, and the kronidae, or keepers of the time-cycles, who afterwards became the ruling powers in creation. The various 'creations' are identical with the establishment of the circles and cycles of time; and the gods who have souls in distinction to the earlier elementaries are intelligencers to men as the demonstrators, watchers, and keepers of their several periods of time. The goddess of the Great Bear was the mother of these continued from Chaos. She brought forth her progeny on the summit of Am-smen, the paradise of the eight gods. She is the mother-goddess of time, the 'Mother of the Revolutions' who was the 'regent of the birth-place' in heaven; the 'Mother of the Fields of the Aah-en-ru' (Aahru), the divisions in the celestial circle. Her firstborn in this new phase of time was Sevekh the dragon or crocodile, the earliest form of Saturn-Kronus in heaven. These two, as mother and son, Great Bear and Lesser (including the dragon), were the primal pair in the circumpolar heaven. They are a form of the typical Sut-Typhon of Egypt; Sutekh and Astarte (in a pre-lunar phase), Saturn and Gaea, the primeval dyad in mythology that were humanised as the first parents of our race who were placed in the [p.94] Garden of Eden, on the mount where stood the tree of the pole. Six other gods of constellations were associated with these two, and the genetrix was represented as being mother of the same number in the sphere of time as she had been in the previous phase of Chaos or limitlessness; the seven elementaries having now become seven keepers of time and period. The various mythical creations then were the result of establishing certain periods of time and season, and the 'Fall' was a consequence of the failure in keeping time faithfully, and of observing periodicity sacredly this being also mystically applied in a human phase.

    The Kabbalists relate that after the fall of Adam the angels communicated to him the doctrines of the Kabbalah as the means whereby he might recover the lost paradise of his pristine condition. Kircher also quotes an Arabian doctor, who relates how Adam, one day after his fall, was meditating on the heaven he had lost, and the state of felicity from which he had lapsed, and he prayed to God for some alleviation of his misery. On the third day after his supplication the angel Rasiel came to him with a book that shone like white flame; in this there were letters traced by which Adam could understand all the events that ever had been or ever were to be; 'all the secrets of the heavens and their manifestations, the motions of the sun, moon, and stars, and their natures, together with all things by which the world is regulated.'[2] The constellations of the Two Bears, with which we identify the primal pair, figure in the Kabbalah as the two chariots. The Lesser Bear in Arabic is named Rakubah. These chariots were looked upon as bearers of the most hidden wisdom. Also the Buddhists have two classes of tradition, divided into the Mahâyana and Hinayana, which are distinguished as sutras of the great and the lesser chariot. Now, the paradise that could be recovered by the Kabbalah and the true keeping of the time cycles had been lost through those that were untrue and untrustworthy. Time is that which is true, and the word true answers to the Egyptian teru for time, measure, and limit. Time is that which is measured truly. Tema or tsema (whence the variant sema) signifies the making true or accomplishing the truth[3].*

    * 'Par substitution d'un impulsif à un autre, Tma égale Sma dans le sens de faire la verité.' But M. Pierret omits the fundamental motive for keeping time as the object called the true, the true measure, the truth. Tem and sem both denote a total of two halves, the two times of teriu, such as those of the two solstices, or equinoxes.

    'Har-Tema' is a title of the maker-true, whether as the star-god Shu, or as the solar Horus, in the sense of the true timekeeper. Hence he is the warrior enemy, and conqueror of the typhonian powers of evil, who would disturb the established order of things and break up the harmony of creation. These began with the darkness impersonated as the dragon, the akhekh or Apophis serpent, the [p.95] opponent, the swallower of the sun or its eye, and the natural antithesis of light and life. When the sun sets it enters the dark valley, where lurks the Kamite Apollyon waiting to attack, and twine round, and strangle the sun-god during the twelve hours of night. The winter sun growing weaker and diminishing daily is under this malign influence. Ra says of his evil opponents, 'Beware of those enchanters whose mouth is subtle, through whom I am enchanted myself I cannot preserve myself because of my old age.'[4] Hence the need of Har-Tema, his supporter in this perilous passage, as his avenger on the powers of darkness. Through his aid the sun comes to time in the morning, and keeps time annually.

    The earliest intelligence manifested in heaven above to man below, which made the primal appeal to his apprehension, was shown in periodic recurrence; the intelligence of the starry serpent annually crawling round; and mythology proper begins with the founding of time on the cyclic movements of the heavenly bodies. The twin beings of the Avesta, who are the Two Truths of light and dark personified, are yet considered to be sons of time without bounds, who became the demonstrators of time within the primary bounds of night and day; the twins of twilight. It was by drinking the amrit juice of immortality that the dragon of darkness, as Rahu, was transformed into one of the keepers of time, and figured in heaven at the place where he had been cut in two. By drinking of this juice he had got 'time in his body,' and thenceforth could not be destroyed. The elementaries acquired their souls as timekeepers; the soul and time being synonymous as seb (Eg.). Rahu became one of the kronotypes as the dragon of the annual eclipse, because he now possessed a soul, or was fabled to have drunk of the immortal juice.

    It is one of the kronian gods who is described in the Books of Enoch and Daniel as the 'Ancient of Days.'[5] Also the typology of parent and offspring or father and son applied to deity, was founded on the series and sequence of the time-cycles, as a human mode of expressing known phenomena, and not under a pretence of revealing the unknown. The god, whether stellar, lunar, or solar, was born of the cycle of time. Hence it is said of Amen-Ra, one of the latest because solar divinities, in the Temple of El-Kharjeh, 'He has not come out of a womb, he has come out of cycles.'[6] The first figure of formation is a circle, the image of a cycle. Hermes speaks of 'Every soul being in flesh (or embodied) by the wonderful working of the gods in circles.'[7] When the gods are discussing their plans of battle after the Assyrian fall, it is said, 'In a circle may they sit.' They were founded on the circle because they were born of cycles of time, even as men are born of nine solar months. The antithesis of the circle was Chaos, the deluge, and timelessness. In the Ritual the goddess Renen, the gestator, is said to receive the breaths (or spirits) of the departed, [p.96] those belonging to her, and to turn them into time, 'She has made each time of the breath, the time of the * (lacuna),' as a mode of continuity in a future life. The mummy of the dead is figured as the bull of Renen, and she reproduces his spirit just as Keridwen reproduced Taliesin in nine months. Being reproduced millions of times is the Kamite expression for eternity[8]. 'My soul is from the beginning—from the reckoning of years,' says the Osirified deceased in the Ritual[9]; and such was the origin of the kronian deities. The gods in heaven prepare their cycles of time according to the respective lengths assigned to them by their human creators on earth, ranging from the 'chiefs preparing moments'[10] up to Atum the solar lord of millions of years, or an eternity that is aeonian.

    In Egyptian the oath and covenant are also synonymous with true timekeeping. The word ark denotes the thirtieth day, the end of a month; and to make the circle, enclose, tie up, take an oath, keep the covenant. Time and truth were founded on this covenant of the ark, or in arke.* In the Book of Enoch[11] we are told that the Most High established the oath of Akae 'by the instrumentality of the holy Michael. These are the secrets of this oath, and by it were they confirmed. Heaven was suspended by it before the world was made for ever. By it has the earth been founded upon the food. By this oath the sun and moon complete their progress, never swerving from the command given to them for ever and ever. By this oath the stars complete their progress, and when their names are called they return an answer for ever and ever.' Such was the nature of the 'Ark and Covenant;' the 'Ark to build, the Covenant to keep;' and such the oath taken by the timekeepers and appointed watchers of the heavens, as unfolded in the 'third parable of Enoch.'

    * Compare akh (Eg.), to suspend, adjust, revolve.

    To comprehend the Egyptian idea of truth and justice impersonated, we must know the types; the straight inflexible rule-measure; the scales at perfect poise, which could be turned by a feather; the tongue of their balance being a vase named full, as the type of absolute equilibrium. Truth was geometrical, the truth of the stone­squarers and the Masons, whose emblems are the square, the level, the compasses; the straight line of plumb-rule. When the true heart is weighed in the judgment scales it is described as balancing itself by its own bearing or deportment; that being a figure for uprightness. Such, and not abstract conceptions, is the base of all their building in the realm of thought. More abstract ideas were gradually evolved in later stages of development. The kronian deity being born of the cycle, the truth was established and the covenant fulfilled by the true timekeeper; and the eternal of mythology was evolved by a process of selection from the various cycle-makers, the goddess of the Great Bear and Sothis; [p.97] Sut-Horus; Shu and Seb the star-gods; Sut-Anup, Taht and Khunsu the lunar, and lastly the solar gods, ending with the survival of the fittest in the final sun-god. For the foundations of the eternal were based on that which was ultimately true in time, the order of things established by calculation, measure, and reckoning of the various periods. The sun at last became the perfected type of the true keeper of time or, what the Egyptians harped on incessantly, the maker of truth. This stage had been attained in Egypt before the time of Menes in the cult of the solar Horus, and in that of Atum-Ra; the sun had consequently become the truest god. As soon as the sun rises the reign of truth begins, with the god upon his throne; truth is united with his glory; he establishes truth in his bark; he becomes the producer and bringer forth of truth; he makes truth; and truth becomes identical with the god[12]. The sun who overthrows his enemies by his word, does so through that word being made or making truth, and he re-arises from the underworld as Har-Ma-Kheru, who is the True Word, the word that makes truth or the word made truth[13]. The word of Horus is truth. The word is truth against the enemies of the sun or the souls who are overthrown by the truth of the word, or the word made truth, as it was in the divine Ma-Kheru.

    Shu and Har-Tema, the supporters of the sun in his weakness, were the makers of truth. Taht is master of the truth, he makes the truth; he is the 'fecundator of the truth,'[14] as he who constitutes the world, the established order of things, that is, as the reckoner and the keeper of the register of time and period. The antithesis of this is found in the 'Lying Speech' of the Avesta. When Yima forsook the true word or voice for 'Lying Speech' he fell. All who suggest evil thoughts, or who do bad deeds, are termed the 'Mithra Liars,' those who are false to Mithra. The origin of this lying speech is traced to Anra-Mainyus (Aharman, in the Bundahish), the Dark Mind, or devil of the dark, who is the reverse image of the good deity, his likeness in shadow, a dark silhouette of the Lord of Light.

  16. THE MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE FALLEN ANGELS
    It has been shown that the 'gods' of mythology in general are of two classes or types, namely those of the elementary forces of nature which dominated in Chaos, and the kronidae, or keepers of the time-cycles, who afterwards became the ruling powers in creation. The various 'creations' are identical with the establishment of the circles and cycles of time; and the gods who have souls in distinction to the earlier elementaries are intelligencers to men as the demonstrators, watchers, and keepers of their several periods of time. The goddess of the Great Bear was the mother of these continued from Chaos. She brought forth her progeny on the summit of Am-smen, the paradise of the eight gods. She is the mother-goddess of time, the 'Mother of the Revolutions' who was the 'regent of the birth-place' in heaven; the 'Mother of the Fields of the Aah-en-ru' (Aahru), the divisions in the celestial circle. Her firstborn in this new phase of time was Sevekh the dragon or crocodile, the earliest form of Saturn-Kronus in heaven. These two, as mother and son, Great Bear and Lesser (including the dragon), were the primal pair in the circumpolar heaven. They are a form of the typical Sut-Typhon of Egypt; Sutekh and Astarte (in a pre-lunar phase), Saturn and Gaea, the primeval dyad in mythology that were humanised as the first parents of our race who were placed in the [p.94] Garden of Eden, on the mount where stood the tree of the pole. Six other gods of constellations were associated with these two, and the genetrix was represented as being mother of the same number in the sphere of time as she had been in the previous phase of Chaos or limitlessness; the seven elementaries having now become seven keepers of time and period. The various mythical creations then were the result of establishing certain periods of time and season, and the 'Fall' was a consequence of the failure in keeping time faithfully, and of observing periodicity sacredly this being also mystically applied in a human phase.

    The Kabbalists relate that after the fall of Adam the angels communicated to him the doctrines of the Kabbalah as the means whereby he might recover the lost paradise of his pristine condition. Kircher also quotes an Arabian doctor, who relates how Adam, one day after his fall, was meditating on the heaven he had lost, and the state of felicity from which he had lapsed, and he prayed to God for some alleviation of his misery. On the third day after his supplication the angel Rasiel came to him with a book that shone like white flame; in this there were letters traced by which Adam could understand all the events that ever had been or ever were to be; 'all the secrets of the heavens and their manifestations, the motions of the sun, moon, and stars, and their natures, together with all things by which the world is regulated.'[2] The constellations of the Two Bears, with which we identify the primal pair, figure in the Kabbalah as the two chariots. The Lesser Bear in Arabic is named Rakubah. These chariots were looked upon as bearers of the most hidden wisdom. Also the Buddhists have two classes of tradition, divided into the Mahâyana and Hinayana, which are distinguished as sutras of the great and the lesser chariot. Now, the paradise that could be recovered by the Kabbalah and the true keeping of the time cycles had been lost through those that were untrue and untrustworthy. Time is that which is true, and the word true answers to the Egyptian teru for time, measure, and limit. Time is that which is measured truly. Tema or tsema (whence the variant sema) signifies the making true or accomplishing the truth[3].*

    * 'Par substitution d'un impulsif à un autre, Tma égale Sma dans le sens de faire la verité.' But M. Pierret omits the fundamental motive for keeping time as the object called the true, the true measure, the truth. Tem and sem both denote a total of two halves, the two times of teriu, such as those of the two solstices, or equinoxes.

    'Har-Tema' is a title of the maker-true, whether as the star-god Shu, or as the solar Horus, in the sense of the true timekeeper. Hence he is the warrior enemy, and conqueror of the typhonian powers of evil, who would disturb the established order of things and break up the harmony of creation. These began with the darkness impersonated as the dragon, the akhekh or Apophis serpent, the [p.95] opponent, the swallower of the sun or its eye, and the natural antithesis of light and life. When the sun sets it enters the dark valley, where lurks the Kamite Apollyon waiting to attack, and twine round, and strangle the sun-god during the twelve hours of night. The winter sun growing weaker and diminishing daily is under this malign influence. Ra says of his evil opponents, 'Beware of those enchanters whose mouth is subtle, through whom I am enchanted myself I cannot preserve myself because of my old age.'[4] Hence the need of Har-Tema, his supporter in this perilous passage, as his avenger on the powers of darkness. Through his aid the sun comes to time in the morning, and keeps time annually.

    The earliest intelligence manifested in heaven above to man below, which made the primal appeal to his apprehension, was shown in periodic recurrence; the intelligence of the starry serpent annually crawling round; and mythology proper begins with the founding of time on the cyclic movements of the heavenly bodies. The twin beings of the Avesta, who are the Two Truths of light and dark personified, are yet considered to be sons of time without bounds, who became the demonstrators of time within the primary bounds of night and day; the twins of twilight. It was by drinking the amrit juice of immortality that the dragon of darkness, as Rahu, was transformed into one of the keepers of time, and figured in heaven at the place where he had been cut in two. By drinking of this juice he had got 'time in his body,' and thenceforth could not be destroyed. The elementaries acquired their souls as timekeepers; the soul and time being synonymous as seb (Eg.). Rahu became one of the kronotypes as the dragon of the annual eclipse, because he now possessed a soul, or was fabled to have drunk of the immortal juice.

    It is one of the kronian gods who is described in the Books of Enoch and Daniel as the 'Ancient of Days.'[5] Also the typology of parent and offspring or father and son applied to deity, was founded on the series and sequence of the time-cycles, as a human mode of expressing known phenomena, and not under a pretence of revealing the unknown. The god, whether stellar, lunar, or solar, was born of the cycle of time. Hence it is said of Amen-Ra, one of the latest because solar divinities, in the Temple of El-Kharjeh, 'He has not come out of a womb, he has come out of cycles.'[6] The first figure of formation is a circle, the image of a cycle. Hermes speaks of 'Every soul being in flesh (or embodied) by the wonderful working of the gods in circles.'[7] When the gods are discussing their plans of battle after the Assyrian fall, it is said, 'In a circle may they sit.' They were founded on the circle because they were born of cycles of time, even as men are born of nine solar months. The antithesis of the circle was Chaos, the deluge, and timelessness. In the Ritual the goddess Renen, the gestator, is said to receive the breaths (or spirits) of the departed, [p.96] those belonging to her, and to turn them into time, 'She has made each time of the breath, the time of the * (lacuna),' as a mode of continuity in a future life. The mummy of the dead is figured as the bull of Renen, and she reproduces his spirit just as Keridwen reproduced Taliesin in nine months. Being reproduced millions of times is the Kamite expression for eternity[8]. 'My soul is from the beginning—from the reckoning of years,' says the Osirified deceased in the Ritual[9]; and such was the origin of the kronian deities. The gods in heaven prepare their cycles of time according to the respective lengths assigned to them by their human creators on earth, ranging from the 'chiefs preparing moments'[10] up to Atum the solar lord of millions of years, or an eternity that is aeonian.

    In Egyptian the oath and covenant are also synonymous with true timekeeping. The word ark denotes the thirtieth day, the end of a month; and to make the circle, enclose, tie up, take an oath, keep the covenant. Time and truth were founded on this covenant of the ark, or in arke.* In the Book of Enoch[11] we are told that the Most High established the oath of Akae 'by the instrumentality of the holy Michael. These are the secrets of this oath, and by it were they confirmed. Heaven was suspended by it before the world was made for ever. By it has the earth been founded upon the food. By this oath the sun and moon complete their progress, never swerving from the command given to them for ever and ever. By this oath the stars complete their progress, and when their names are called they return an answer for ever and ever.' Such was the nature of the 'Ark and Covenant;' the 'Ark to build, the Covenant to keep;' and such the oath taken by the timekeepers and appointed watchers of the heavens, as unfolded in the 'third parable of Enoch.'

    * Compare akh (Eg.), to suspend, adjust, revolve.

    To comprehend the Egyptian idea of truth and justice impersonated, we must know the types; the straight inflexible rule-measure; the scales at perfect poise, which could be turned by a feather; the tongue of their balance being a vase named full, as the type of absolute equilibrium. Truth was geometrical, the truth of the stone­squarers and the Masons, whose emblems are the square, the level, the compasses; the straight line of plumb-rule. When the true heart is weighed in the judgment scales it is described as balancing itself by its own bearing or deportment; that being a figure for uprightness. Such, and not abstract conceptions, is the base of all their building in the realm of thought. More abstract ideas were gradually evolved in later stages of development. The kronian deity being born of the cycle, the truth was established and the covenant fulfilled by the true timekeeper; and the eternal of mythology was evolved by a process of selection from the various cycle-makers, the goddess of the Great Bear and Sothis; [p.97] Sut-Horus; Shu and Seb the star-gods; Sut-Anup, Taht and Khunsu the lunar, and lastly the solar gods, ending with the survival of the fittest in the final sun-god. For the foundations of the eternal were based on that which was ultimately true in time, the order of things established by calculation, measure, and reckoning of the various periods. The sun at last became the perfected type of the true keeper of time or, what the Egyptians harped on incessantly, the maker of truth. This stage had been attained in Egypt before the time of Menes in the cult of the solar Horus, and in that of Atum-Ra; the sun had consequently become the truest god. As soon as the sun rises the reign of truth begins, with the god upon his throne; truth is united with his glory; he establishes truth in his bark; he becomes the producer and bringer forth of truth; he makes truth; and truth becomes identical with the god[12]. The sun who overthrows his enemies by his word, does so through that word being made or making truth, and he re-arises from the underworld as Har-Ma-Kheru, who is the True Word, the word that makes truth or the word made truth[13]. The word of Horus is truth. The word is truth against the enemies of the sun or the souls who are overthrown by the truth of the word, or the word made truth, as it was in the divine Ma-Kheru.

    Shu and Har-Tema, the supporters of the sun in his weakness, were the makers of truth. Taht is master of the truth, he makes the truth; he is the 'fecundator of the truth,'[14] as he who constitutes the world, the established order of things, that is, as the reckoner and the keeper of the register of time and period. The antithesis of this is found in the 'Lying Speech' of the Avesta. When Yima forsook the true word or voice for 'Lying Speech' he fell. All who suggest evil thoughts, or who do bad deeds, are termed the 'Mithra Liars,' those who are false to Mithra. The origin of this lying speech is traced to Anra-Mainyus (Aharman, in the Bundahish), the Dark Mind, or devil of the dark, who is the reverse image of the good deity, his likeness in shadow, a dark silhouette of the Lord of Light.

    Periodical time was so profoundly important a subject of the early thought, and the orbs of heaven were demonstrators so august and glorious, that no conception of unfaithfulness, of failing in duty, of being treacherous to all trust, could have been embodied in more appealing or appalling imagery than this of the stars, the eternal watchers in Heaven proving false to the watchers on earth, who had trusted them for their periodic time; the luminaries themselves breaking the law of light and siding with the dragon of darkness, the akhekh monster of eclipse, the primal cause of all obstruction, disorder, and confusion in external phenomena! When this was first observed, it must have seemed as if they had lost their one firm bit of solid foothold in the infinite; as if the uniformity on which they had based the stability of [p.98] the universe were found to be failing them. At least this is the impression made by the mythos.

    The Persian 'Revelation,' as the Parsee writings are termed, contains some of the most valuable and definite matter extant for the understanding of the story of the Fall. In these scriptures the first creation is emphatically the birth of Time itself. For '"Three thousand years the creatures were possessed of bodies and (had) not (been) walking on their navels. The sun, moon, and stars stood still." In the mischievous incursion at the end of the period, Ahura-Mazda observed thus: "What advantage is there from the creation of a creature although thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous?" And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the creature Time, and Time is unrestricted, so that he made the creatures of Ahura-Masda moving, distinct from the motion of Aharman's creatures, for the shedders of perfume were standing one opposite to the other while emitting it. And observantly of the end, he brought forward to Aharman a means out of himself the property of darkness, with which the extreme limits of Time were connected by him, an envelope of the black-pated and ash-coloured kind.'[15]

    The creatures of Aharman (here described as preceding time) that were unmoving and mischievous, are identical by nature with the elementaries of Egypt, the children of laziness, inertness, and revolt, who ruled in Chaos as the progeny of the evil Typhon. The ancient phraseology makes the matter seem remote, but it relates to the establishment of day and night, light and dark, and the limits of the grey twilight, in which the two powers met to mingle as co-partners in the production of time as a day and night, the time of the Asvins, or Sut and Horus. The evil spirit Aharman, the opponent of the spirit of light, in the Bundahish, is identical with the Apophis of the Ritual, the eternal enemy of the sun. Ahura-Mazda lives in a region of limitless light; Aharman dwells in a domain that is endlessly dark. Then the evil spirit arose from the abyss and came in unto the light which he saw[16], and rushed forward to destroy.

    'Aharman came from accompanying Time out to the front, out to the star-station, and having darkness with himself he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky extends as much as one-third over the star-station.'[17]

    So in the Bundahish, the evil spirit rushed towards the luminaries. 'He stood upon one-third of the inside of the sky, and he sprang like a snake out of the sky down to the earth.'[18] It is also said that his shadow covered one-third of the base of the sky in a downward direction, and that darkness, without an eyelid, was brought on by him. The same measure of darkness over-spreading the sky is employed in John's Revelation: 'And there appeared a dragon in [p.99] heaven having seven heads, and his tail drew a third part of the stars of Heaven and did cast them to the earth. And there was war in Heaven.' 'And the great dragon was cast out into the Earth, and his angels were cast out with him.'[19]

    The attack of Aharman is not limited to indefinite darkness. It takes form in an eclipse, and the exact time of an assault on the celestial luminaries is given. 'In the month Fravardin and the day of Ahura-Mazda (that is at the time of the vernal equinox), he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was as shattered and frightened as a sheep is by a wolf.'[20] The time identifies this manifestation of the Evil One with the dragon of eclipse, this being the season of lunar eclipses, and the period of rebirth for the young sun-god[21].

    The first demon named as an assistant of the Evil One is the wicked Géh, who is a personification of the impurity of menstruation. The Dark Mind, or Devil, Aharman, is represented as powerless, and unable to make a breach in the good creation until the coming of Gêh at the completion of the three thousand years[22] of confusion that followed the first vain assault made by darkness upon the light. Thus menstruation, the dark shadow of periodic time, the solution of continuity, is here represented as an equivalent in one domain of nature to the dark break in the circle of light caused by Aharman's eclipse in the other. So when Ahura-Mazda had created Hapta-Hendu, the opposition of the dark deity was shown in producing irregular menstruation[23]. These, then, are two periodic breaches made in continuity, or time, considered to be the shadow projected on creation by the Evil Mind, the dragon of eclipse.

    The next assault is described as having been made on the primeval ox called Gayomard, who is now to be identified with the star Sothis and Haptoringa, the seven Bears—two stellar types north and south of her who was set in heaven as the mother-goddess of time. The primeval ox, the sole-created, is distinctly stated in the Selections of Zad-Sparam[24] to have been female at first. 'It was a female white and brilliant as the moon.' This agrees with the Egyptian form of Sothis described as the female bull which was originally the cow (or the water-cow). From the ox there were produced for Airyana-Vaêjo, a pair of oxen, male and female. This likewise agrees with the Egyptian beginning. The cow (or water-cow) is female in the north, and has a masculine character as Sothis in the south, the forepart being male.

    As Plutarch says, 'The souls of the Gods are stars shining in Heaven. The soul of Isis is called the Dog by the Greeks, but by the Egyptians Sothis; that of Horus Orion; and that of Typhon the Bear.'[25] The soul of Isis (genetrix) was said to dwell in the Dog-star. So Gôshurvan, [p.100] as the soul of the primeval ox Gayomard, is a female. She comes forth from the ox as its soul, after its fall, and asks the creator where is the promised seed, the man of whom it was said by Ahura-Mazda, 'I will produce him so that he may preach carefulness against another fall. And Ahura-Mazda said, 'You are made ill, O Gôshurvan! you have the illness which the evil spirit brought on (the Gêh). Forth Gôshurvan walked to the Star-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Moon-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Sun-Station, and then the Guardian Spirit of Zaratusht was exhibited to her, and Ahura-Mazda said this: "I will produce for the world him who will preach carefulness." Contented became the spirit Gôshurvan, and assented thus: "I will nourish the creatures," that is, she became again consenting to a worldly creation in the world.'[26] This was when the adversary had prevailed over Gayomard, or as may be illustrated, if not interpreted, when Sothis was discovered to be lapsing and losing time, and the true, the solar timekeeper is promised to be brought forth by the ancient genetrix. Gayomard, as the ox (male), repeats the bull of the seven cows, or seven stars, in the Egyptian Ritual. Before the coming of Aharman, Ahura-Mazda had 'brought forth a sweat upon Gayomard so long as he might recite a prayer of one stanza. Moreover, Ahura-Mazda formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, radiant and tall. When Gayomard issued from that sweat he saw the world dark as night … the celestial sphere was in revolution, the sun and moon remained in motion; the world's struggle, owing to the clamour of the Mazinikan demons, was with the constellations.'[27]

    This duplicating of Gayomard by a second creation is in agreement with the formation of the dual-headed Sut-Horus, or Sut-Anubis. Anup like Horus is a typical youth. 'His Majesty was like a young Anup.'[28] Now, Sothis (Sirius) is known to be the star Tishtar.

    'The star Tistrya, the shining, majestic, we praise, who brings hither the circling years of time.'[29] The bull was one of the types of Tishtar, who, in the Vendidad[30] is expressly invoked as the golden bull. That is as Sut-Anta (Eg.). Also the female companions of Tishtar are invoked in the Khordah Avesta[31]. 'Tistrya praise we, the female companions of Tishtar praise we, the first (star) praise we, the female companions of the first star praise we; I praise the stars Hapto-ringa for resisting the sorcerers and parikas.' These are the seven Bears which, as the seven cows in the Ritual, are the seven female companions of the bull. They were also the sevenfold soul of the bull or Sothis. Thus Gayomard and the genetrix, who is called the soul of the bull (the giver of breath, or inspirer of life as the mother), are the same dyad, now identified [p.101] by the celestial phenomena, as the good Sut-Typhon. In the appointment of Time at first it was decreed that the period of Gayomard-Tishtar should be thirty years, the time of the Egyptian Sut-Heb, a Sothic festival. A reason is given for the failure or fail of Gayomard-Sothis, who came under the influence of the Dark Mind, the evil Aharman, the author of discord and dissolution, the antithesis of time and the law of light.

    'In the Beginning it was so appointed that the Star Jupiter (Planet of Ahura-Mazda), was life towards the Creatures, not through its own nature, but on account of its being within the control (band), of the luminaries, (especially the signs of the zodiac, to whose protection the Good Creation was committed), and Saturn was death towards the Creatures. Both were in their supremacy at the beginning of the Creation, as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which is called Givan (living), for it is the place in which life is bestowed on it. And Saturn was in Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own venom and deadliness became more evident and dominant thereby. And it was when both shall (should) not be supreme that Gayomard was to commence his own life, which is the thirty years, (during which) Saturn came not again to supremacy, that is to Libra.' And 'at the time when Saturn came into Libra, Jupiter was in Capricornus.' That is while Saturn performed one revolution about the Sun, Jupiter performed two and a half his cycle consisting of eleven years and three hundred and fifteen days, so that when Saturn was again supreme, the reviving influence of Jupiter was at its minimum power, on account of the small altitude of Capricorn. Cancer and Capricorn were the two signs in which the end of a world was fabled to occur by a conflagration and a deluge. In consequence of this victory of Saturn over Jupiter, 'Gayomard suffered through those very defects which came and are to continue advancing, the continuance of that disfigurement which Aharman can bring upon the creatures of Ahura-Mazda.'[32]

    Here it occurs to me, that the same mode of reckoning and adjusting the reckonings is described on the cuneiform tablet, when 'Bel goes to Elam.' 'At last, after thirty years the Smitten are restored the Great Gods return with them.'[33] This appears to refer to the cycle of thirty years, the Egyptian Heb-Sut or festival of the Triakontaeteridae, which was probably regulated by or in relation to Saturn's revolution, and thirty years of three hundred and sixty days. The restoration of the smitten, and the return of the Great Gods to their supremacy would then be a metaphorical mode of describing the readjustment of the year, and the reckoning according to the fixed rules.

    The deviation of Sothis from the true solar time—in its heliacal [p.102] rising—which was allowed for annually, and rectified every 1,460 years, was considered to be the work of the opposing powers of disorder, falsehood, and chaos; these were depicted as gaining thus much ground according to the typical mode of representation, and such seems to be the meaning of this restoration of the smitten and the return of the Great Gods at the end of thirty years. The attack was made on Gayomard and Gôshurvan by the evil power, the enemy of true periodicity, and he who had been brilliant as the sun, now waned in the shadow of eclipse. When he issued from his sweat or swoon in which the youth was formed out of him, the whole world was dark as night, and swarming with all kinds of noxious creatures of Aharman. And it was at the 'coming of a planetary star into planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets all at sixes and sevens; (literally in fours and fives), that many dark forms with the face and curls of Azi-Dahak suffered punishment.'[34]

    The planetary star of Sothis was Mercury, who is Sut-Anubis under his planetary type; but there was also a lunar Mercury or Hermanubis. When Ahura-Mazda's creatures had been disfigured, then through the same deterioration his own great glory was exhibited; for he came within the sky like an intrepid warrior, who has put on metal armour; and the sky in its fortress (burgo, which also means the zodiacal signs), spoke these hasty deceitful words to Aharman, thus:

    '"Now, when thou shalt have come in, I will not let thee back;" and it obstructed him until Ahura-Mazda prepared another rampart that is stronger around the sky, which is called "righteous understanding." And he arranged the guardian spirits of the righteous who are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses and spear in hand in such a manner, as the hair on the head (or thick as hairs on the head); and they acquired the appearance of prison guards who watch a prison front outside, and would not surrender the outer boundaries to an enemy descended from the inside. Immediately, Aharman endeavours that he may go back to his own complete darkness, but he found no passage; and he recapitulated, with seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness which is to arise at the appearance of the renovation (of the universe) at the end of the nine thousand years. This was the first contest, that of the sky, with Aharman.'[35]

    Thus, it is said, 'Both Spirits (the Dark and the light) have come to the body of Gayomard,'[36] which statement may be illustrated by the type of Sut-Horus or Sut Nub-ti with the double head, one black, one bright, denoting the dark and light spirits, the two representatives of time, as true and untrue, of order and disorder, of upper and lower, of heaven and earth, the horizon of darkness and death, and the horizon of the resurrection. The meaning is this: Sothis was [p.103] discovered to be losing time—in its heliacal rising—it lost one whole year every 1,460 years; and the lunar Hermes-Anubis (described later) came to the assistance of the lagging timekeeper, the two being compounded as Sut-Anup the golden dog of Sothis.

    The first timekeepers were constellations, not the planets, but the stars of fixed station, which turned round with the sphere as do the Bears, Kepheus, Orion, Hydra, the Eagle or Vulture, and the rest. Next the planets were added and combined with these.

    'All the original creations residing in the World' are committed to the keeping of the constellations which have especial charge of the welfare of creation: 'So that when the Destroyer arrives, they overcome the Adversary and their own persecution, and the creatures are saved from their Adversaries,' and 'As a specimen of a warlike Army, which is destined for battle, they have ordained every single constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as assistants, and among those constellations "four chieftains," appointed on the four sides, are Leaders.' On the recommendation of these four chieftains, the unnumbered stars were assigned to the various quarters and places. 'It is said that Tishtar is the chieftain of the east, Sataves the chieftain of the west, Vanand the chieftain of the south, and Hapto-ringa the chieftain of the north.'[37] Hapto-ringa is the constellation of Ursa Major or the seven Bears.

    Tishtar is identified with Sirius, the other two are less certain, but most probably Antares in Scorpio and Fomalhaut in Pisces Australis are intended. Also the four are certain to be the gods of the four quarters who are found in so many mythologies. In the Avesta these watchers in the four quarters of the heavens are called Tistrya in the east; Satavaesa in the west; Vanand in the south, and Hapto-ringa (the seven Bears) in the north. Furthermore, the Bundahish[38], says, 'Seven chieftains of the planets have come in to the Seven chieftains of the constellations. The planet Mercury (Tir) unto Tishtar; the planet Mars unto Haptok-ring (the seven Bears, the female companions of Tishtar); the planet Jupiter (Ahura-Mazda) unto Vanand; the planet Venus (Anahid) unto Sataves; the planet Saturn unto the great (one) of the middle of the sky, Gôkihar*; and the thievish Muspar (or Mus-parika), provided with tails, unto the Sun, Moon, and Stars.'[39]

    * Gôkihar. Windischmann would read Gurgkihar, wolf-progeny[40].

    The main point here, however, is that Mercury is the servant of Sothis—its messenger, its dog, who became its bright and better half in the reckoning of time, the period of the one being corrected and kept by the other. Plutarch suggested that the horizon immediately before the rising and immediately after the setting of the sun was symbolized by Anubis[41]. Renouf says, 'I believe that he represents the twilight or dusk immediately following the [p.104] disappearance of the Sun.'[42] But Anubis is the guide of ways, the guide of Isis, and of Sothis, the discoverer of the sun, the conductor of souls. He was typified by the jackal that came out at dusk, and was painted with a black head, as guide of the western land, and the jackal was the golden dog, as the guide to the horizon of the resurrection.

    What is needed here is a star of the dusk, that is a guide to the sun. This is to be found in the planet Mercury which is sometimes a morning and at others an evening star. This planet was given to Sothis as her guide and assistant, hence Anup accompanies Isis the genetrix in her search for the lost Osiris and is the guide of souls through the underworld of the dead, and was like Nebo the keeper of the morning and evening gate of souls, as well as of the sun, because he was the god of the morning and evening star. As evening star he presided over the burial of the sun, and was made the deity of embalmment and burial. As star of morning he restored the eye of the sun at the dawn of day not merely as the dusk or twilight, but as the herald light, the guide of ways, and conductor of the solar orb. Mercury watched at dusk over the closing grave of sunset, and at dawn he rose and preceded the resurrection of the sun. Sut-Anubis was Hermes-Anubis, who preceded Taht, in his lunar phase (yet to be described), and Mercury in his planetary character.

    Moreover, there are seven spirits associated with the Great Bear. Anup makes their places, and stations them for the protection of the coffin of Osiris, i.e., the constellation of Ursa Major. The seven spirits are the gods of the seven constellations that preceded the seven planets and were finally superseded by them or compounded with them. There are eight altogether, considered as the genetrix and her progeny. The seven furnished a type which was continued in the lunar and solar phases of the mythos. They were typhonian at first, and Sut (Sevekh) was the chief of the seven. When lunar time had been established, Taht was made the manifestor, word or speech. When Ptah, a solar god, although not the sun, was created, the seven as the Khnemu are called his sons. And the eight-rayed star remained a type of the solar manifestor of the final pleroma of the godhead[43]. The eight are included under the type of the female dragon and her seven heads in the Akkadian legends. The original eight were elementaries in Egypt who had been represented under zoological types. These were afterwards more or less humanized when they became watchers and timekeepers, and personification had succeeded the earlier mode of representation. This is mentioned in passing because the change of type to the human form may have a bearing on the marriage of the sons of God who saw the daughters of men were fair, and took them wives from the women [p.105] of earth, who are charged with leading them astray in order that they might salute them[44]. In their second phase the seven (eight with the mother) became the watchers in heaven that failed to keep the true time; the betsh party who were degraded as the children of inertness, laziness, and revolt, and the sluggish 'Animals of Satan,' the standers-still, the 'Fools' and 'Sleepers' of later legends; they who, like Orion, were discovered to be bound in heaven and held to be fools and blind; or, as we say, they were fixed stars, that only turned with the sphere, not movers of themselves. Moreover, they were discovered to be losing time all together in the course of precession, and so they were fabled to have been lifeless laggards, or, it was said they had fallen in love with the women of earth and were of the earth earthy—not true celestial beings, nor trustworthy watchers.

     

    Hence the mythos of the fall in heaven. The fallen ogdoad survived in the Moslem traditions as the 'seven sleepers and their dog Al-Rakim.' In the Koran[45] it is asked, 'Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave, and Al-Rakim, were one of our signs and a great miracle?' In this version Al-Rakim takes the place of the dog, the companion of the seven sleepers of Ephesus. The companions of the cave are here said to have been struck deaf, and to have slept undisturbed for a long time, and then the Lord awoke them that we might know 'which of the two parties was more exact in computing the space that the sleepers had remained there,' according to which statement they were of the nature of timekeepers, and therefore belong to the astronomical allegory. 'Some say the sleepers were three, and their dog was the fourth,' as was the opinion of Al-Seyid, a Jacobite Christian of Najrân[46]. 'Others say they were seven, and their dog was the eighth.' 'And this was the true opinion.'[47] The four can be identified with the genii of the four corners, who are four of the seven spirits of the bear and the dog.

    The time of their waking is that of the final resurrection of souls and the renovation of all things. There was a tradition at Ephesus that St. John was not dead, but sleeping there until the consummation or end of the world should come; and this points to the seven churches of Asia as having been founded on the seven constellations in the celestial heptanomis, the seven spirits of which appear 'before the throne' in the Book of Revelation[48] just as they do in the Egyptian Ritual[49].

    It was in the time of the Nephilim (םיליפנ), as described in the Book of Genesis[50], that certain transactions occurred which led to a deluge. The Nephilim, called the giants, are the fallen ones. לפנ means to fall down, to fall down from heaven, to be overthrown, to be abortive, or an untimely birth. These fallen ones correspond to the celestial giants of the primary world or cycle of time who failed and [p.106] fell. In their time it is said the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they cohabited with them[51]. The legend is developed at length in the Book of Enoch where they appear as the 'Watchers' of heaven. In this version of the mythos they are the celestial watchers in the astronomical sense, the disposers and timekeepers, recognized as seven in number. The language is not to be understood apart from the total typology of the subject. The crime charged against Samyaza, Azazel, and their fallen fellows is that they have known and taught a reprobated or unworthy mystery[52]; this they have 'related to women in the hardness of their hearts;' and by that mystery, they have 'multiplied evils upon the earth.' They 'have associated with women, that they might be polluted with all their impurity.' They have discovered crimes to them. It is said to them, 'You being spiritual, and possessing a life which is eternal, have polluted yourselves with women, have coupled in carnal blood, have lusted in the blood of men.' 'They have disclosed to the world all the secret things which are done in the heavens.' 'Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky and their holy, everlasting station, who have been polluted with women, and done as the sons of men do, and who have greatly corrupted the earth, they shall never obtain peace or remission of sin, they shall not rejoice in their offspring, they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved, they shall lament for the destruction of their sons.'[53] This doomed offspring is emphatically described in the Clementine Homilies[54] as 'bastards,' begotten of the 'fire of angels and the blood of women.' The language is typical, the imagery physiological. The offspring are giants, that is types of typhonian powers which were lawless, and existed before the establishment of time and period, hence the non-respect to female periodicity in the figures employed! Hence also it is said, 'The souls of those who are dead cry out and complain even to the gate of heaven,'[55] these are the souls that should have been human, waiting to be born, and frustrated in fulfilling their earthly existence, because of this non-natural relationship which has filled the earth with iniquity and corruption. The language of the myth has the same basis in physics as that of the eating of the forbidden fruit and consequent fall of man. The watchers are tempted like the Adamic pair to eat of the carnal tree; and as in the one fable the act brings death into the world, in the other the earth is deprived of her children that should have been born but were abortions. Indeed, one of the watchers, Gadrel, he who discovered every stroke of death to the children of men, is singled out and said to have been the seducer of Eve[56].

    How the physiological origin dominated the figurative expression may be judged by the exclamation of Esdras for the climax of [p.107] confusion, 'and menstruous women shall bring forth monsters!'[57]—the monsters and giants of the mythos, which relate to the keeping of time and period, first in the human domain, next in the celestial, and lastly in the spiritual sense. The fallen stars then are period-breakers, and the mode of expressing this is in relation to the feminine periodicity. They are spoken of as guardians of time who have proved unfaithful to their trust. They are 'Stars which transgressed the commandment of God before their tune arrived, for they came not in their proper season, therefore was he offended with them, and bound them until the period of the consummation of their crimes.'[58] Enoch is carried to the summit of a mountain which reached to the top of heaven and is there shown the seven deposed stars or constellations, which appear 'like great blazing mountains, and like spirits entreating me.' The seven are the watchers who in the beginning were high in heaven, but who together with their fellows failed to keep time, and were cast out until the end of the secret or great year of precession, when the heavens were to be renewed. They are seen by Enoch, bound in a desolate place 'in which nothing was completed, and there I beheld neither the tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth.'[59] They who first emerged from chaos had here returned to chaos; for in that place there was neither the 'tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth' nothing but desolation. The seven appear as mountains because the mountain had been a figure of station and of the constellations; hence the seven mountains which represented them on earth. In like manner, the tree was not only imaged by seven branchesi, as it is on the Assyrian monuments, but also by the seven trees. The tree (vine) in the planisphere has seven branches, and this in the Codex Nazaraeus takes the form of seven vines[60]. So the staff of the twin brothers Kabil and Habil grew up into the seven trees. The total number of the stars that fell, leaders and followers together, who are described as alighting on Ardis, the summit of Mount Armon, was two hundred[61], and this is the exact number given in a Tongan tradition of creation which tells that when the islands were made, but before they were inhabited by reasonable beings, two hundred of the gods, male and female, took a great boat to go and see the earth which had been fished up from the sea by the god Tangaloa. So delighted were they with the newfound land that they broke up their big boat, intending to make smaller ones in which they should return. But after a time some of them died, and one of them, being divinely inspired, told them that since they had come to Tonga, breathed its air and eaten its fruits, thy should be mortal, and people the world with mortals. Then they were sad and [p.108] sorry that they had broken up their big boat. They set to work to build another, and went to sea hoping to reach Bolutu, the heaven they had left, but failing to find it they returned regretfully to Tonga[62]. Their great boat was the ark of the sphere in which the seven Cabiri had first sailed on their annual voyage through the celestial sea in the earliest cycle of time. The seven constellations may have included 200 stars.

  17. THE MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE FALLEN ANGELS
    It has been shown that the 'gods' of mythology in general are of two classes or types, namely those of the elementary forces of nature which dominated in Chaos, and the kronidae, or keepers of the time-cycles, who afterwards became the ruling powers in creation. The various 'creations' are identical with the establishment of the circles and cycles of time; and the gods who have souls in distinction to the earlier elementaries are intelligencers to men as the demonstrators, watchers, and keepers of their several periods of time. The goddess of the Great Bear was the mother of these continued from Chaos. She brought forth her progeny on the summit of Am-smen, the paradise of the eight gods. She is the mother-goddess of time, the 'Mother of the Revolutions' who was the 'regent of the birth-place' in heaven; the 'Mother of the Fields of the Aah-en-ru' (Aahru), the divisions in the celestial circle. Her firstborn in this new phase of time was Sevekh the dragon or crocodile, the earliest form of Saturn-Kronus in heaven. These two, as mother and son, Great Bear and Lesser (including the dragon), were the primal pair in the circumpolar heaven. They are a form of the typical Sut-Typhon of Egypt; Sutekh and Astarte (in a pre-lunar phase), Saturn and Gaea, the primeval dyad in mythology that were humanised as the first parents of our race who were placed in the [p.94] Garden of Eden, on the mount where stood the tree of the pole. Six other gods of constellations were associated with these two, and the genetrix was represented as being mother of the same number in the sphere of time as she had been in the previous phase of Chaos or limitlessness; the seven elementaries having now become seven keepers of time and period. The various mythical creations then were the result of establishing certain periods of time and season, and the 'Fall' was a consequence of the failure in keeping time faithfully, and of observing periodicity sacredly this being also mystically applied in a human phase.

    The Kabbalists relate that after the fall of Adam the angels communicated to him the doctrines of the Kabbalah as the means whereby he might recover the lost paradise of his pristine condition. Kircher also quotes an Arabian doctor, who relates how Adam, one day after his fall, was meditating on the heaven he had lost, and the state of felicity from which he had lapsed, and he prayed to God for some alleviation of his misery. On the third day after his supplication the angel Rasiel came to him with a book that shone like white flame; in this there were letters traced by which Adam could understand all the events that ever had been or ever were to be; 'all the secrets of the heavens and their manifestations, the motions of the sun, moon, and stars, and their natures, together with all things by which the world is regulated.'[2] The constellations of the Two Bears, with which we identify the primal pair, figure in the Kabbalah as the two chariots. The Lesser Bear in Arabic is named Rakubah. These chariots were looked upon as bearers of the most hidden wisdom. Also the Buddhists have two classes of tradition, divided into the Mahâyana and Hinayana, which are distinguished as sutras of the great and the lesser chariot. Now, the paradise that could be recovered by the Kabbalah and the true keeping of the time cycles had been lost through those that were untrue and untrustworthy. Time is that which is true, and the word true answers to the Egyptian teru for time, measure, and limit. Time is that which is measured truly. Tema or tsema (whence the variant sema) signifies the making true or accomplishing the truth[3].*

    * 'Par substitution d'un impulsif à un autre, Tma égale Sma dans le sens de faire la verité.' But M. Pierret omits the fundamental motive for keeping time as the object called the true, the true measure, the truth. Tem and sem both denote a total of two halves, the two times of teriu, such as those of the two solstices, or equinoxes.

    'Har-Tema' is a title of the maker-true, whether as the star-god Shu, or as the solar Horus, in the sense of the true timekeeper. Hence he is the warrior enemy, and conqueror of the typhonian powers of evil, who would disturb the established order of things and break up the harmony of creation. These began with the darkness impersonated as the dragon, the akhekh or Apophis serpent, the [p.95] opponent, the swallower of the sun or its eye, and the natural antithesis of light and life. When the sun sets it enters the dark valley, where lurks the Kamite Apollyon waiting to attack, and twine round, and strangle the sun-god during the twelve hours of night. The winter sun growing weaker and diminishing daily is under this malign influence. Ra says of his evil opponents, 'Beware of those enchanters whose mouth is subtle, through whom I am enchanted myself I cannot preserve myself because of my old age.'[4] Hence the need of Har-Tema, his supporter in this perilous passage, as his avenger on the powers of darkness. Through his aid the sun comes to time in the morning, and keeps time annually.

    The earliest intelligence manifested in heaven above to man below, which made the primal appeal to his apprehension, was shown in periodic recurrence; the intelligence of the starry serpent annually crawling round; and mythology proper begins with the founding of time on the cyclic movements of the heavenly bodies. The twin beings of the Avesta, who are the Two Truths of light and dark personified, are yet considered to be sons of time without bounds, who became the demonstrators of time within the primary bounds of night and day; the twins of twilight. It was by drinking the amrit juice of immortality that the dragon of darkness, as Rahu, was transformed into one of the keepers of time, and figured in heaven at the place where he had been cut in two. By drinking of this juice he had got 'time in his body,' and thenceforth could not be destroyed. The elementaries acquired their souls as timekeepers; the soul and time being synonymous as seb (Eg.). Rahu became one of the kronotypes as the dragon of the annual eclipse, because he now possessed a soul, or was fabled to have drunk of the immortal juice.

    It is one of the kronian gods who is described in the Books of Enoch and Daniel as the 'Ancient of Days.'[5] Also the typology of parent and offspring or father and son applied to deity, was founded on the series and sequence of the time-cycles, as a human mode of expressing known phenomena, and not under a pretence of revealing the unknown. The god, whether stellar, lunar, or solar, was born of the cycle of time. Hence it is said of Amen-Ra, one of the latest because solar divinities, in the Temple of El-Kharjeh, 'He has not come out of a womb, he has come out of cycles.'[6] The first figure of formation is a circle, the image of a cycle. Hermes speaks of 'Every soul being in flesh (or embodied) by the wonderful working of the gods in circles.'[7] When the gods are discussing their plans of battle after the Assyrian fall, it is said, 'In a circle may they sit.' They were founded on the circle because they were born of cycles of time, even as men are born of nine solar months. The antithesis of the circle was Chaos, the deluge, and timelessness. In the Ritual the goddess Renen, the gestator, is said to receive the breaths (or spirits) of the departed, [p.96] those belonging to her, and to turn them into time, 'She has made each time of the breath, the time of the * (lacuna),' as a mode of continuity in a future life. The mummy of the dead is figured as the bull of Renen, and she reproduces his spirit just as Keridwen reproduced Taliesin in nine months. Being reproduced millions of times is the Kamite expression for eternity[8]. 'My soul is from the beginning—from the reckoning of years,' says the Osirified deceased in the Ritual[9]; and such was the origin of the kronian deities. The gods in heaven prepare their cycles of time according to the respective lengths assigned to them by their human creators on earth, ranging from the 'chiefs preparing moments'[10] up to Atum the solar lord of millions of years, or an eternity that is aeonian.

    In Egyptian the oath and covenant are also synonymous with true timekeeping. The word ark denotes the thirtieth day, the end of a month; and to make the circle, enclose, tie up, take an oath, keep the covenant. Time and truth were founded on this covenant of the ark, or in arke.* In the Book of Enoch[11] we are told that the Most High established the oath of Akae 'by the instrumentality of the holy Michael. These are the secrets of this oath, and by it were they confirmed. Heaven was suspended by it before the world was made for ever. By it has the earth been founded upon the food. By this oath the sun and moon complete their progress, never swerving from the command given to them for ever and ever. By this oath the stars complete their progress, and when their names are called they return an answer for ever and ever.' Such was the nature of the 'Ark and Covenant;' the 'Ark to build, the Covenant to keep;' and such the oath taken by the timekeepers and appointed watchers of the heavens, as unfolded in the 'third parable of Enoch.'

    * Compare akh (Eg.), to suspend, adjust, revolve.

    To comprehend the Egyptian idea of truth and justice impersonated, we must know the types; the straight inflexible rule-measure; the scales at perfect poise, which could be turned by a feather; the tongue of their balance being a vase named full, as the type of absolute equilibrium. Truth was geometrical, the truth of the stone­squarers and the Masons, whose emblems are the square, the level, the compasses; the straight line of plumb-rule. When the true heart is weighed in the judgment scales it is described as balancing itself by its own bearing or deportment; that being a figure for uprightness. Such, and not abstract conceptions, is the base of all their building in the realm of thought. More abstract ideas were gradually evolved in later stages of development. The kronian deity being born of the cycle, the truth was established and the covenant fulfilled by the true timekeeper; and the eternal of mythology was evolved by a process of selection from the various cycle-makers, the goddess of the Great Bear and Sothis; [p.97] Sut-Horus; Shu and Seb the star-gods; Sut-Anup, Taht and Khunsu the lunar, and lastly the solar gods, ending with the survival of the fittest in the final sun-god. For the foundations of the eternal were based on that which was ultimately true in time, the order of things established by calculation, measure, and reckoning of the various periods. The sun at last became the perfected type of the true keeper of time or, what the Egyptians harped on incessantly, the maker of truth. This stage had been attained in Egypt before the time of Menes in the cult of the solar Horus, and in that of Atum-Ra; the sun had consequently become the truest god. As soon as the sun rises the reign of truth begins, with the god upon his throne; truth is united with his glory; he establishes truth in his bark; he becomes the producer and bringer forth of truth; he makes truth; and truth becomes identical with the god[12]. The sun who overthrows his enemies by his word, does so through that word being made or making truth, and he re-arises from the underworld as Har-Ma-Kheru, who is the True Word, the word that makes truth or the word made truth[13]. The word of Horus is truth. The word is truth against the enemies of the sun or the souls who are overthrown by the truth of the word, or the word made truth, as it was in the divine Ma-Kheru.

    Shu and Har-Tema, the supporters of the sun in his weakness, were the makers of truth. Taht is master of the truth, he makes the truth; he is the 'fecundator of the truth,'[14] as he who constitutes the world, the established order of things, that is, as the reckoner and the keeper of the register of time and period. The antithesis of this is found in the 'Lying Speech' of the Avesta. When Yima forsook the true word or voice for 'Lying Speech' he fell. All who suggest evil thoughts, or who do bad deeds, are termed the 'Mithra Liars,' those who are false to Mithra. The origin of this lying speech is traced to Anra-Mainyus (Aharman, in the Bundahish), the Dark Mind, or devil of the dark, who is the reverse image of the good deity, his likeness in shadow, a dark silhouette of the Lord of Light.

    Periodical time was so profoundly important a subject of the early thought, and the orbs of heaven were demonstrators so august and glorious, that no conception of unfaithfulness, of failing in duty, of being treacherous to all trust, could have been embodied in more appealing or appalling imagery than this of the stars, the eternal watchers in Heaven proving false to the watchers on earth, who had trusted them for their periodic time; the luminaries themselves breaking the law of light and siding with the dragon of darkness, the akhekh monster of eclipse, the primal cause of all obstruction, disorder, and confusion in external phenomena! When this was first observed, it must have seemed as if they had lost their one firm bit of solid foothold in the infinite; as if the uniformity on which they had based the stability of [p.98] the universe were found to be failing them. At least this is the impression made by the mythos.

    The Persian 'Revelation,' as the Parsee writings are termed, contains some of the most valuable and definite matter extant for the understanding of the story of the Fall. In these scriptures the first creation is emphatically the birth of Time itself. For '"Three thousand years the creatures were possessed of bodies and (had) not (been) walking on their navels. The sun, moon, and stars stood still." In the mischievous incursion at the end of the period, Ahura-Mazda observed thus: "What advantage is there from the creation of a creature although thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous?" And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the creature Time, and Time is unrestricted, so that he made the creatures of Ahura-Masda moving, distinct from the motion of Aharman's creatures, for the shedders of perfume were standing one opposite to the other while emitting it. And observantly of the end, he brought forward to Aharman a means out of himself the property of darkness, with which the extreme limits of Time were connected by him, an envelope of the black-pated and ash-coloured kind.'[15]

    The creatures of Aharman (here described as preceding time) that were unmoving and mischievous, are identical by nature with the elementaries of Egypt, the children of laziness, inertness, and revolt, who ruled in Chaos as the progeny of the evil Typhon. The ancient phraseology makes the matter seem remote, but it relates to the establishment of day and night, light and dark, and the limits of the grey twilight, in which the two powers met to mingle as co-partners in the production of time as a day and night, the time of the Asvins, or Sut and Horus. The evil spirit Aharman, the opponent of the spirit of light, in the Bundahish, is identical with the Apophis of the Ritual, the eternal enemy of the sun. Ahura-Mazda lives in a region of limitless light; Aharman dwells in a domain that is endlessly dark. Then the evil spirit arose from the abyss and came in unto the light which he saw[16], and rushed forward to destroy.

    'Aharman came from accompanying Time out to the front, out to the star-station, and having darkness with himself he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky extends as much as one-third over the star-station.'[17]

    So in the Bundahish, the evil spirit rushed towards the luminaries. 'He stood upon one-third of the inside of the sky, and he sprang like a snake out of the sky down to the earth.'[18] It is also said that his shadow covered one-third of the base of the sky in a downward direction, and that darkness, without an eyelid, was brought on by him. The same measure of darkness over-spreading the sky is employed in John's Revelation: 'And there appeared a dragon in [p.99] heaven having seven heads, and his tail drew a third part of the stars of Heaven and did cast them to the earth. And there was war in Heaven.' 'And the great dragon was cast out into the Earth, and his angels were cast out with him.'[19]

    The attack of Aharman is not limited to indefinite darkness. It takes form in an eclipse, and the exact time of an assault on the celestial luminaries is given. 'In the month Fravardin and the day of Ahura-Mazda (that is at the time of the vernal equinox), he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was as shattered and frightened as a sheep is by a wolf.'[20] The time identifies this manifestation of the Evil One with the dragon of eclipse, this being the season of lunar eclipses, and the period of rebirth for the young sun-god[21].

    The first demon named as an assistant of the Evil One is the wicked Géh, who is a personification of the impurity of menstruation. The Dark Mind, or Devil, Aharman, is represented as powerless, and unable to make a breach in the good creation until the coming of Gêh at the completion of the three thousand years[22] of confusion that followed the first vain assault made by darkness upon the light. Thus menstruation, the dark shadow of periodic time, the solution of continuity, is here represented as an equivalent in one domain of nature to the dark break in the circle of light caused by Aharman's eclipse in the other. So when Ahura-Mazda had created Hapta-Hendu, the opposition of the dark deity was shown in producing irregular menstruation[23]. These, then, are two periodic breaches made in continuity, or time, considered to be the shadow projected on creation by the Evil Mind, the dragon of eclipse.

    The next assault is described as having been made on the primeval ox called Gayomard, who is now to be identified with the star Sothis and Haptoringa, the seven Bears—two stellar types north and south of her who was set in heaven as the mother-goddess of time. The primeval ox, the sole-created, is distinctly stated in the Selections of Zad-Sparam[24] to have been female at first. 'It was a female white and brilliant as the moon.' This agrees with the Egyptian form of Sothis described as the female bull which was originally the cow (or the water-cow). From the ox there were produced for Airyana-Vaêjo, a pair of oxen, male and female. This likewise agrees with the Egyptian beginning. The cow (or water-cow) is female in the north, and has a masculine character as Sothis in the south, the forepart being male.

    As Plutarch says, 'The souls of the Gods are stars shining in Heaven. The soul of Isis is called the Dog by the Greeks, but by the Egyptians Sothis; that of Horus Orion; and that of Typhon the Bear.'[25] The soul of Isis (genetrix) was said to dwell in the Dog-star. So Gôshurvan, [p.100] as the soul of the primeval ox Gayomard, is a female. She comes forth from the ox as its soul, after its fall, and asks the creator where is the promised seed, the man of whom it was said by Ahura-Mazda, 'I will produce him so that he may preach carefulness against another fall. And Ahura-Mazda said, 'You are made ill, O Gôshurvan! you have the illness which the evil spirit brought on (the Gêh). Forth Gôshurvan walked to the Star-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Moon-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Sun-Station, and then the Guardian Spirit of Zaratusht was exhibited to her, and Ahura-Mazda said this: "I will produce for the world him who will preach carefulness." Contented became the spirit Gôshurvan, and assented thus: "I will nourish the creatures," that is, she became again consenting to a worldly creation in the world.'[26] This was when the adversary had prevailed over Gayomard, or as may be illustrated, if not interpreted, when Sothis was discovered to be lapsing and losing time, and the true, the solar timekeeper is promised to be brought forth by the ancient genetrix. Gayomard, as the ox (male), repeats the bull of the seven cows, or seven stars, in the Egyptian Ritual. Before the coming of Aharman, Ahura-Mazda had 'brought forth a sweat upon Gayomard so long as he might recite a prayer of one stanza. Moreover, Ahura-Mazda formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, radiant and tall. When Gayomard issued from that sweat he saw the world dark as night … the celestial sphere was in revolution, the sun and moon remained in motion; the world's struggle, owing to the clamour of the Mazinikan demons, was with the constellations.'[27]

    This duplicating of Gayomard by a second creation is in agreement with the formation of the dual-headed Sut-Horus, or Sut-Anubis. Anup like Horus is a typical youth. 'His Majesty was like a young Anup.'[28] Now, Sothis (Sirius) is known to be the star Tishtar.

    'The star Tistrya, the shining, majestic, we praise, who brings hither the circling years of time.'[29] The bull was one of the types of Tishtar, who, in the Vendidad[30] is expressly invoked as the golden bull. That is as Sut-Anta (Eg.). Also the female companions of Tishtar are invoked in the Khordah Avesta[31]. 'Tistrya praise we, the female companions of Tishtar praise we, the first (star) praise we, the female companions of the first star praise we; I praise the stars Hapto-ringa for resisting the sorcerers and parikas.' These are the seven Bears which, as the seven cows in the Ritual, are the seven female companions of the bull. They were also the sevenfold soul of the bull or Sothis. Thus Gayomard and the genetrix, who is called the soul of the bull (the giver of breath, or inspirer of life as the mother), are the same dyad, now identified [p.101] by the celestial phenomena, as the good Sut-Typhon. In the appointment of Time at first it was decreed that the period of Gayomard-Tishtar should be thirty years, the time of the Egyptian Sut-Heb, a Sothic festival. A reason is given for the failure or fail of Gayomard-Sothis, who came under the influence of the Dark Mind, the evil Aharman, the author of discord and dissolution, the antithesis of time and the law of light.

    'In the Beginning it was so appointed that the Star Jupiter (Planet of Ahura-Mazda), was life towards the Creatures, not through its own nature, but on account of its being within the control (band), of the luminaries, (especially the signs of the zodiac, to whose protection the Good Creation was committed), and Saturn was death towards the Creatures. Both were in their supremacy at the beginning of the Creation, as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which is called Givan (living), for it is the place in which life is bestowed on it. And Saturn was in Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own venom and deadliness became more evident and dominant thereby. And it was when both shall (should) not be supreme that Gayomard was to commence his own life, which is the thirty years, (during which) Saturn came not again to supremacy, that is to Libra.' And 'at the time when Saturn came into Libra, Jupiter was in Capricornus.' That is while Saturn performed one revolution about the Sun, Jupiter performed two and a half his cycle consisting of eleven years and three hundred and fifteen days, so that when Saturn was again supreme, the reviving influence of Jupiter was at its minimum power, on account of the small altitude of Capricorn. Cancer and Capricorn were the two signs in which the end of a world was fabled to occur by a conflagration and a deluge. In consequence of this victory of Saturn over Jupiter, 'Gayomard suffered through those very defects which came and are to continue advancing, the continuance of that disfigurement which Aharman can bring upon the creatures of Ahura-Mazda.'[32]

    Here it occurs to me, that the same mode of reckoning and adjusting the reckonings is described on the cuneiform tablet, when 'Bel goes to Elam.' 'At last, after thirty years the Smitten are restored the Great Gods return with them.'[33] This appears to refer to the cycle of thirty years, the Egyptian Heb-Sut or festival of the Triakontaeteridae, which was probably regulated by or in relation to Saturn's revolution, and thirty years of three hundred and sixty days. The restoration of the smitten, and the return of the Great Gods to their supremacy would then be a metaphorical mode of describing the readjustment of the year, and the reckoning according to the fixed rules.

    The deviation of Sothis from the true solar time—in its heliacal [p.102] rising—which was allowed for annually, and rectified every 1,460 years, was considered to be the work of the opposing powers of disorder, falsehood, and chaos; these were depicted as gaining thus much ground according to the typical mode of representation, and such seems to be the meaning of this restoration of the smitten and the return of the Great Gods at the end of thirty years. The attack was made on Gayomard and Gôshurvan by the evil power, the enemy of true periodicity, and he who had been brilliant as the sun, now waned in the shadow of eclipse. When he issued from his sweat or swoon in which the youth was formed out of him, the whole world was dark as night, and swarming with all kinds of noxious creatures of Aharman. And it was at the 'coming of a planetary star into planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets all at sixes and sevens; (literally in fours and fives), that many dark forms with the face and curls of Azi-Dahak suffered punishment.'[34]

    The planetary star of Sothis was Mercury, who is Sut-Anubis under his planetary type; but there was also a lunar Mercury or Hermanubis. When Ahura-Mazda's creatures had been disfigured, then through the same deterioration his own great glory was exhibited; for he came within the sky like an intrepid warrior, who has put on metal armour; and the sky in its fortress (burgo, which also means the zodiacal signs), spoke these hasty deceitful words to Aharman, thus:

    '"Now, when thou shalt have come in, I will not let thee back;" and it obstructed him until Ahura-Mazda prepared another rampart that is stronger around the sky, which is called "righteous understanding." And he arranged the guardian spirits of the righteous who are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses and spear in hand in such a manner, as the hair on the head (or thick as hairs on the head); and they acquired the appearance of prison guards who watch a prison front outside, and would not surrender the outer boundaries to an enemy descended from the inside. Immediately, Aharman endeavours that he may go back to his own complete darkness, but he found no passage; and he recapitulated, with seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness which is to arise at the appearance of the renovation (of the universe) at the end of the nine thousand years. This was the first contest, that of the sky, with Aharman.'[35]

    Thus, it is said, 'Both Spirits (the Dark and the light) have come to the body of Gayomard,'[36] which statement may be illustrated by the type of Sut-Horus or Sut Nub-ti with the double head, one black, one bright, denoting the dark and light spirits, the two representatives of time, as true and untrue, of order and disorder, of upper and lower, of heaven and earth, the horizon of darkness and death, and the horizon of the resurrection. The meaning is this: Sothis was [p.103] discovered to be losing time—in its heliacal rising—it lost one whole year every 1,460 years; and the lunar Hermes-Anubis (described later) came to the assistance of the lagging timekeeper, the two being compounded as Sut-Anup the golden dog of Sothis.

    The first timekeepers were constellations, not the planets, but the stars of fixed station, which turned round with the sphere as do the Bears, Kepheus, Orion, Hydra, the Eagle or Vulture, and the rest. Next the planets were added and combined with these.

    'All the original creations residing in the World' are committed to the keeping of the constellations which have especial charge of the welfare of creation: 'So that when the Destroyer arrives, they overcome the Adversary and their own persecution, and the creatures are saved from their Adversaries,' and 'As a specimen of a warlike Army, which is destined for battle, they have ordained every single constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as assistants, and among those constellations "four chieftains," appointed on the four sides, are Leaders.' On the recommendation of these four chieftains, the unnumbered stars were assigned to the various quarters and places. 'It is said that Tishtar is the chieftain of the east, Sataves the chieftain of the west, Vanand the chieftain of the south, and Hapto-ringa the chieftain of the north.'[37] Hapto-ringa is the constellation of Ursa Major or the seven Bears.

    Tishtar is identified with Sirius, the other two are less certain, but most probably Antares in Scorpio and Fomalhaut in Pisces Australis are intended. Also the four are certain to be the gods of the four quarters who are found in so many mythologies. In the Avesta these watchers in the four quarters of the heavens are called Tistrya in the east; Satavaesa in the west; Vanand in the south, and Hapto-ringa (the seven Bears) in the north. Furthermore, the Bundahish[38], says, 'Seven chieftains of the planets have come in to the Seven chieftains of the constellations. The planet Mercury (Tir) unto Tishtar; the planet Mars unto Haptok-ring (the seven Bears, the female companions of Tishtar); the planet Jupiter (Ahura-Mazda) unto Vanand; the planet Venus (Anahid) unto Sataves; the planet Saturn unto the great (one) of the middle of the sky, Gôkihar*; and the thievish Muspar (or Mus-parika), provided with tails, unto the Sun, Moon, and Stars.'[39]

    * Gôkihar. Windischmann would read Gurgkihar, wolf-progeny[40].

    The main point here, however, is that Mercury is the servant of Sothis—its messenger, its dog, who became its bright and better half in the reckoning of time, the period of the one being corrected and kept by the other. Plutarch suggested that the horizon immediately before the rising and immediately after the setting of the sun was symbolized by Anubis[41]. Renouf says, 'I believe that he represents the twilight or dusk immediately following the [p.104] disappearance of the Sun.'[42] But Anubis is the guide of ways, the guide of Isis, and of Sothis, the discoverer of the sun, the conductor of souls. He was typified by the jackal that came out at dusk, and was painted with a black head, as guide of the western land, and the jackal was the golden dog, as the guide to the horizon of the resurrection.

    What is needed here is a star of the dusk, that is a guide to the sun. This is to be found in the planet Mercury which is sometimes a morning and at others an evening star. This planet was given to Sothis as her guide and assistant, hence Anup accompanies Isis the genetrix in her search for the lost Osiris and is the guide of souls through the underworld of the dead, and was like Nebo the keeper of the morning and evening gate of souls, as well as of the sun, because he was the god of the morning and evening star. As evening star he presided over the burial of the sun, and was made the deity of embalmment and burial. As star of morning he restored the eye of the sun at the dawn of day not merely as the dusk or twilight, but as the herald light, the guide of ways, and conductor of the solar orb. Mercury watched at dusk over the closing grave of sunset, and at dawn he rose and preceded the resurrection of the sun. Sut-Anubis was Hermes-Anubis, who preceded Taht, in his lunar phase (yet to be described), and Mercury in his planetary character.

    Moreover, there are seven spirits associated with the Great Bear. Anup makes their places, and stations them for the protection of the coffin of Osiris, i.e., the constellation of Ursa Major. The seven spirits are the gods of the seven constellations that preceded the seven planets and were finally superseded by them or compounded with them. There are eight altogether, considered as the genetrix and her progeny. The seven furnished a type which was continued in the lunar and solar phases of the mythos. They were typhonian at first, and Sut (Sevekh) was the chief of the seven. When lunar time had been established, Taht was made the manifestor, word or speech. When Ptah, a solar god, although not the sun, was created, the seven as the Khnemu are called his sons. And the eight-rayed star remained a type of the solar manifestor of the final pleroma of the godhead[43]. The eight are included under the type of the female dragon and her seven heads in the Akkadian legends. The original eight were elementaries in Egypt who had been represented under zoological types. These were afterwards more or less humanized when they became watchers and timekeepers, and personification had succeeded the earlier mode of representation. This is mentioned in passing because the change of type to the human form may have a bearing on the marriage of the sons of God who saw the daughters of men were fair, and took them wives from the women [p.105] of earth, who are charged with leading them astray in order that they might salute them[44]. In their second phase the seven (eight with the mother) became the watchers in heaven that failed to keep the true time; the betsh party who were degraded as the children of inertness, laziness, and revolt, and the sluggish 'Animals of Satan,' the standers-still, the 'Fools' and 'Sleepers' of later legends; they who, like Orion, were discovered to be bound in heaven and held to be fools and blind; or, as we say, they were fixed stars, that only turned with the sphere, not movers of themselves. Moreover, they were discovered to be losing time all together in the course of precession, and so they were fabled to have been lifeless laggards, or, it was said they had fallen in love with the women of earth and were of the earth earthy—not true celestial beings, nor trustworthy watchers.

     

    Hence the mythos of the fall in heaven. The fallen ogdoad survived in the Moslem traditions as the 'seven sleepers and their dog Al-Rakim.' In the Koran[45] it is asked, 'Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave, and Al-Rakim, were one of our signs and a great miracle?' In this version Al-Rakim takes the place of the dog, the companion of the seven sleepers of Ephesus. The companions of the cave are here said to have been struck deaf, and to have slept undisturbed for a long time, and then the Lord awoke them that we might know 'which of the two parties was more exact in computing the space that the sleepers had remained there,' according to which statement they were of the nature of timekeepers, and therefore belong to the astronomical allegory. 'Some say the sleepers were three, and their dog was the fourth,' as was the opinion of Al-Seyid, a Jacobite Christian of Najrân[46]. 'Others say they were seven, and their dog was the eighth.' 'And this was the true opinion.'[47] The four can be identified with the genii of the four corners, who are four of the seven spirits of the bear and the dog.

    The time of their waking is that of the final resurrection of souls and the renovation of all things. There was a tradition at Ephesus that St. John was not dead, but sleeping there until the consummation or end of the world should come; and this points to the seven churches of Asia as having been founded on the seven constellations in the celestial heptanomis, the seven spirits of which appear 'before the throne' in the Book of Revelation[48] just as they do in the Egyptian Ritual[49].

    It was in the time of the Nephilim (םיליפנ), as described in the Book of Genesis[50], that certain transactions occurred which led to a deluge. The Nephilim, called the giants, are the fallen ones. לפנ means to fall down, to fall down from heaven, to be overthrown, to be abortive, or an untimely birth. These fallen ones correspond to the celestial giants of the primary world or cycle of time who failed and [p.106] fell. In their time it is said the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they cohabited with them[51]. The legend is developed at length in the Book of Enoch where they appear as the 'Watchers' of heaven. In this version of the mythos they are the celestial watchers in the astronomical sense, the disposers and timekeepers, recognized as seven in number. The language is not to be understood apart from the total typology of the subject. The crime charged against Samyaza, Azazel, and their fallen fellows is that they have known and taught a reprobated or unworthy mystery[52]; this they have 'related to women in the hardness of their hearts;' and by that mystery, they have 'multiplied evils upon the earth.' They 'have associated with women, that they might be polluted with all their impurity.' They have discovered crimes to them. It is said to them, 'You being spiritual, and possessing a life which is eternal, have polluted yourselves with women, have coupled in carnal blood, have lusted in the blood of men.' 'They have disclosed to the world all the secret things which are done in the heavens.' 'Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky and their holy, everlasting station, who have been polluted with women, and done as the sons of men do, and who have greatly corrupted the earth, they shall never obtain peace or remission of sin, they shall not rejoice in their offspring, they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved, they shall lament for the destruction of their sons.'[53] This doomed offspring is emphatically described in the Clementine Homilies[54] as 'bastards,' begotten of the 'fire of angels and the blood of women.' The language is typical, the imagery physiological. The offspring are giants, that is types of typhonian powers which were lawless, and existed before the establishment of time and period, hence the non-respect to female periodicity in the figures employed! Hence also it is said, 'The souls of those who are dead cry out and complain even to the gate of heaven,'[55] these are the souls that should have been human, waiting to be born, and frustrated in fulfilling their earthly existence, because of this non-natural relationship which has filled the earth with iniquity and corruption. The language of the myth has the same basis in physics as that of the eating of the forbidden fruit and consequent fall of man. The watchers are tempted like the Adamic pair to eat of the carnal tree; and as in the one fable the act brings death into the world, in the other the earth is deprived of her children that should have been born but were abortions. Indeed, one of the watchers, Gadrel, he who discovered every stroke of death to the children of men, is singled out and said to have been the seducer of Eve[56].

    How the physiological origin dominated the figurative expression may be judged by the exclamation of Esdras for the climax of [p.107] confusion, 'and menstruous women shall bring forth monsters!'[57]—the monsters and giants of the mythos, which relate to the keeping of time and period, first in the human domain, next in the celestial, and lastly in the spiritual sense. The fallen stars then are period-breakers, and the mode of expressing this is in relation to the feminine periodicity. They are spoken of as guardians of time who have proved unfaithful to their trust. They are 'Stars which transgressed the commandment of God before their tune arrived, for they came not in their proper season, therefore was he offended with them, and bound them until the period of the consummation of their crimes.'[58] Enoch is carried to the summit of a mountain which reached to the top of heaven and is there shown the seven deposed stars or constellations, which appear 'like great blazing mountains, and like spirits entreating me.' The seven are the watchers who in the beginning were high in heaven, but who together with their fellows failed to keep time, and were cast out until the end of the secret or great year of precession, when the heavens were to be renewed. They are seen by Enoch, bound in a desolate place 'in which nothing was completed, and there I beheld neither the tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth.'[59] They who first emerged from chaos had here returned to chaos; for in that place there was neither the 'tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth' nothing but desolation. The seven appear as mountains because the mountain had been a figure of station and of the constellations; hence the seven mountains which represented them on earth. In like manner, the tree was not only imaged by seven branchesi, as it is on the Assyrian monuments, but also by the seven trees. The tree (vine) in the planisphere has seven branches, and this in the Codex Nazaraeus takes the form of seven vines[60]. So the staff of the twin brothers Kabil and Habil grew up into the seven trees. The total number of the stars that fell, leaders and followers together, who are described as alighting on Ardis, the summit of Mount Armon, was two hundred[61], and this is the exact number given in a Tongan tradition of creation which tells that when the islands were made, but before they were inhabited by reasonable beings, two hundred of the gods, male and female, took a great boat to go and see the earth which had been fished up from the sea by the god Tangaloa. So delighted were they with the newfound land that they broke up their big boat, intending to make smaller ones in which they should return. But after a time some of them died, and one of them, being divinely inspired, told them that since they had come to Tonga, breathed its air and eaten its fruits, thy should be mortal, and people the world with mortals. Then they were sad and [p.108] sorry that they had broken up their big boat. They set to work to build another, and went to sea hoping to reach Bolutu, the heaven they had left, but failing to find it they returned regretfully to Tonga[62]. Their great boat was the ark of the sphere in which the seven Cabiri had first sailed on their annual voyage through the celestial sea in the earliest cycle of time. The seven constellations may have included 200 stars.

  18. The Sumerians lived ammongst the Anunnaki,Yes God means GOD`s.And In 1500 AD we believed the world was FLAT yet the Sumerians new It was round and how many planets 6,000 years ago befor the bible was written,thats co`s trhe bible was copy`d srom the Sumerian clay tablets found In a burry`s libery by an English man In 1849,It took another 100 years to translate them and wot a shock It must have been co`s It blew all religions away,So the religions wont recognise It but there`s millions like me who do and want to no the truth.

  19. I do like to come here to see the retards share retarded ideas that never come about. Damn alien planet never coming and shiznit. Never trust a mullet cuz it's a mullet.

  20. please..  who are these physios,,, that claim Jupiter is only ten thousand years old. They must have followed timmy down the lsd hole. Idiots or misinformation spreaders

  21. People still deny that aliens visited us over a period of millions of years, despite all of the evidence that is provided. It's this ignorance that is preventing humanity from moving forward in the study of history, and other studies.

  22. It amazes me how primitive our species has become. GMO, processed foods. All contributes to a slave like culture. Humans do not want the hear what they do not understand. They would rather stay in a bubble of ignorance and watch the TV.

  23.  
    The late Professor Samuel Noah Kramer wrote a number of boks about the Sumerians and their gods. From the ceniform tablets he determined how and why man came to be created. He noted conflicting accounts. At Eridu where dwelt the god Enki (Babylonian Ea), a revolt had taken place by the Igigi gods over the grievous toil in his city-garden of Edin. To placate the Igigi it was decided that a new agricultural slave would be created of the clay over the Apsu: man. Now the Igigi could enjoy an eternal rest from agricultural toil like the Annuaki gods (Enki was an Annunkai god). The gods, Annunaki and Igigi, in the early myths, ahd bodies of fleah and blood and could be killed. They could also experience hunger and starve to death, hence the reason their city-gardens were created to feed themselves. Now man would grow the food and feed it to the gods (Annunaki and Igigi) in Temple sacrifices, and also provide shelter and clothing for the gods, that they could live life free of earthly toil. There is nothing in the Sumerian or Babylonian texts about the gods making man to get gold for themselves (that's Sitchen's notion). Another Sumerian account about man's creation occurs at Nippur, whose god is Enlil (Babylonian Ellil). The Igigi gods are again in revolt over grievous toil in his city-garden of edin, and threaten his life. He calls upon Enki for help. Enki decides to replace the Igigi gods with man as the new agricultural slave. Man will build the irrigation ditches and clear them of sediments,, plant food, harvest the food and present it to the Annunaki and Igigi gods in temple sacrifices. The 3rd account has Marduk the god of Babylon creating man to end the toil of the gods for life's necessities: food, shelter and clothing. Ea (Enki) is called upon by Marduk to do the actual creating of man. The Nippur version has the Igigi ringleader god slain and his flesh and blood ground into clay to animate and give life to man. The Babylonian account has the rebel god Kingu slain and his blood is mixed in the clay to create man. In all three accounts about man's creation it is not about the seeking after gold, it is to end the toil of the gods for life's necessities: food, shelter and clothing. I would recommend those interested in all of the above to visit my website http://www.bibleorigins.net for further details. If you click on my name I have 70 YouTube videos on the Bible and archaeology, showing how Sumerian myths were recast by the Hebrews in the book of Genesis. Sitchin has merely done as his forebearers (Jews) did, recast the Sumerian myths to create his version of Ancient History with spurious translations of Cuneiform tablets.

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